MSN Warns Disasters

MSN Warns Disasters

 

MSN Warns Disasters by, Concept Activity Research Vault

March 7, 2012 18:22:42 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: May 16, 2011 )

Los Angeles – May 16, 2011 – MSN Slate News reported ( read article below ) that a host of disasters are coming, which ‘the public should not become overly worried about’, but suggests throwing a celebration-like “18th Century Weekend” in-advance so ‘people can experience what a solar flare disaster might be like to live through’.

While the suggested Medieval celebratory affair ‘concept’ is ‘unique’, MSN suggesting the public ‘stock up on batteries’ was a bit off because apparently the journalist did not realize ‘batteries become drained’ subsequent to an environmental anomaly ‘overcharging’ from an ambient auroral current attributable to what occurs during a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE );  ‘candles’ or ‘lumeniscent gel sticks’ ( shake lights ) would work amidst such, however mainstream news media broadcasts and print media, without thoroughly researching facts first, have a habit of passing inaccurate information on to the general public, and at the same time, doing it mostly in a whimsical fashion so it can be easily swallowed by the public. That type of reporting does ‘not’ help the public, but only serves to provide the illusion that what is being reported about will probably never happen. Big mistake!

News reporting, as a public service, should take far more care when reporting about emergency disaster preparedness on ‘what to do’ and just ‘how to prepare’; especially when it comes to mentioning a ‘significant’ solar flare ( also known as ) a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) that could quickly and very seriously disable the national electricity infrastructure without warning.

To let CARV readers review how MSN Slate News recently put it to the general public, we cordially invite ‘you’ ( our readers ) to review the MSN Slate News report ( below ) so, you can be the judge on whom to rely on for delivering your emergency disaster preparedness information from.

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Source: MSN Slate News

Meltdowns. Floods. Tornadoes. Oil spills. Grid crashes. Why more and more things seem to be going wrong, and what we can do about it.

The Century of Disasters by, Joel Achenbach

May 13, 2011 5:56 PM ( EST )

This will be the century of disasters.

In the same way that the 20th century was the century of world wars, genocide, and grinding ideological conflict, the 21st century will be the century of natural disasters and technological crises and unholy combinations of the two.

It will be the century when the things we count on to go right will – for whatever reason – go wrong.

Late last month ( April 2011 ), as the Mississippi River rose in what is destined to be the worst flood in decades, residents of Alabama and other states rummaged through the debris of a historic tornado outbreak.

Physicists at a meeting in Anaheim, California had a discussion about the dangers posed by the Sun.

Solar flares, scientists believe, are a disaster waiting to happen. Thus one of the sessions at the American Physical Society annual meeting was devoted to discussing the hazard of electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) caused by solar flares – or terrorist attacks. Such pulses ( EMP ) could fry transformers and knock out the electrical grid over much of the nation. Last year the Oak Ridge National Laboratory released a study saying the damage might take years to fix and cost trillions of dollars.

But maybe even that is not the disaster people should be worrying about.

Maybe they should worry instead about the “ARkStorm.” That’s the name the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) Multihazards Demonstration Project ( MDP ) gave to a hypothetical storm that would essentially turn much of the California Central Valley into a bathtub. It has happened before, in 1861 – 1862, when it rained for 45-days continously. USGS explains, “The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming a series of “Atmospheric Rivers” ( AR ) that approach the ferocity of hurricanes and then slam into the United States West Coast over several weeks.” The result, the USGS determined, could be a flood that would cost $725,000,000 billion in direct property losses and economic impact.

While pondering this, don’t forget the Cascadia subduction zone, the plate boundary off the coast of the Pacific Northwest, that could generate a tsunami much like the one that devastated Japan in March 2011. The Cascadia subduction zone, runs from Vancouver Island to northern California, last rupturing in a major tsunami spawning earthquake on January 26, 1700. It could break at any moment, with catastrophic consequences.

All of these things have the common feature of low probability and high consequence.

They are known as “black swan” events.

They are unpredictable in any practical sense.

There are also things ordinary people probably should not worry about on a daily basis.

You can’t fear the Sun.

You cannot worry a rock will fall out of the sky and smash the Earth, or that the ground will open up and swallow you like a vitamin.

A key element of maintaining one’s sanity is ‘knowing how to ignore risks’ that are highly improbable at any given point in time.

And yet in the coming century, these or other ‘black swan events’ will seem to occur with surprising frequency.

There are several reasons for this.

We have chosen to engineer the planet.

We have built vast networks of technology.

We have created systems that, in general, work very well, but are still vulnerable to catastrophic failures.

It is harder and harder for any one person, institution, or agency to perceive all the interconnected elements of the technological society.

Failures can cascade.

There are unseen weak points in the network.

Small failures can have broad consequences.

Most importantly, we have more people and more stuff standing in the way of calamity.

We are not suddenly having more earthquakes, but there are now 7,000,000,000 billion of us, a majority living in cities.

In 1800, only Beijing, China could count 1,000,000 inhabitants, but at last count there were 381 cities with at least 1,000,000 people.

Many are MegaCities in seismically hazardous places like Mexico City, Caracas, Venezuela; Tehran, Iran and Kathmandu amongst those with a lethal combination of weak infrastructure ( unreinforced masonry buildings ) and shaky foundations.

Natural disasters will increasingly be accompanied by technological crises, and the other way around.

In March 2011, the Japan earthquake triggered the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant meltdown.

Last year ( 2010 ), a technological failure on the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig – in the Gulf of Mexico – led to the environmental crisis of the oil spill. ( I chronicle the Deepwater Horizon blowout and the ensuing crisis management in a new book: A Hole at the Bottom of the Sea: The Race to Kill the BP Oil Gusher. )

In both the Deepwater Horizon and Fukushima disasters, the safety systems were not nearly as robust as the industries believed.

In these technological accidents, there are hidden pathways for the gremlins to infiltrate the operation.

In the case of Deepwater Horizon, a series of decisions by BP ( oil company ) and its contractors led to a loss of well control — the initial blowout. The massive blowout preventer on the sea floor was equipped with a pair of pinchers known as ‘blind shear rams’. They were supposed to cut the drillpipe and shear the well. The forensic investigation indicated the initial eruption of gas buckled the pipe and prevented the blind shear rams from getting a clean bite on it so, the “backup” plan — of cutting the pipe — was effectively eliminated in the initial event; the loss of well control.

Fukushima also had a backup plan that was not far enough back. The nuclear power plant had backup generators – in case the grid went down – but the generators were on ‘low’ ground and were blasted by the tsunami.

Without electricity the power company had no way to cool the nuclear fuel rods.

In a sense, it was a very simple problem: a power outage.

Some modern reactors coming online have passive cooling systems for backups that rely on gravity and evaporation to circulate the cooling water.

Charles Perrow, author of Normal Accidents, told me that computer infrastructure is a disaster in the making.

“Watch out for failures in cloud computing,” he said by e-mail, “They will have consequences for medical monitoring systems and much else.”

Technology also mitigates disasters, of course.

Pandemics remain a threat, but modern medicine can help us stay a step ahead of evolving microbes.

Satellites and computer models helped meteorologists anticipate the deadly storms of April 27, 2011 and warn people to find cover in advance of the twisters.

Better building codes save lives in earthquakes. Chile, which has strict building codes, was hit with a powerful earthquake last year ( 2010 ) but suffered only a fraction of the fatalities and damage that impoverished Haiti endured just weeks earlier.

The current ( 2011 ) Mississippi flood is an example of technology at work for better and for worse.

As I write, the Army Corps of Engineers are poised to open the Morganza spillway and flood much of the Atchafalaya basin. That’s not a “disaster” but a solution of sorts, since the alternative is the flooding of cities downstream and possible levee failure. Of course, the levees might still fail. We’ll see. But this is how the system is ‘supposed’ to work.

On the other hand, the broader drainage system of the Mississippi River watershed is set up in a way that it makes floods more likely. Corn fields, for example in parts of the upper Midwest, have been “tiled” with pipes that carry excess rainwater rapidly to the rip-rap ( small stone ladden ) streams and onward down to rivers lined with levees. We gave up natural drainage decades ago.

The Mississippi is like a catheter, at this point. Had nature remained in charge, the river would have mitigated much of its downstream flooding by spreading into natural floodplains further up river ( and the main channel would have long ago switched to the Atchafalaya river basin — see John McPhee “The Control of Nature” — and New Orleans would no longer be a riverfront city).

One wild card for how disastrous this century will become is climate change.

There’s been a robust debate on the blogs about whether the recent weather events ( tornadoes and floods ) can be attributed to climate change.

It is a briar patch of an issue and I’ll exercise my right to skip past it for the most part.

But I think it’s clear that climate change will exacerbate natural disasters in general in coming years, and introduce a new element of risk and uncertainty into a future in which we have plenty of risks and uncertainties already. This, we don’t need.

And by the way, any discussion of “geoengineering” as a solution to climate change needs to be examined with the understanding that engineering systems can and will fail.

You don’t want to bet, the future of the planet, on an elaborate technological fix in which everything has to work perfectly. If failure is not an option, maybe you ‘should not’ try-it to begin-with.

So if we cannot engineer our-way out-of our ‘engineered disasters’, and if ‘natural disasters’ are going to keep pummeling us – as they have since the dawn of time — what is our strategy? Other than, you-know, despair? Well, that has always worked for me, but here are a few more practical thoughts to throw in the mix:

First [ 1st ], we might want to try some regulation by people with no skin in the game. That might mean, for example, government regulators who make as much money as the people they’re regulating. Or it could even mean a ‘private-sector regulatory apparatus policing the industry’, cracking down on rogue operators. The point is, we don’t want every risky decision made by people with pecuniary interests.

Second [ 2nd ], we need to keep things in perspective. The apparent onslaught of disasters does not portend the end of the world. Beware of ‘disaster hysteria in the news media’. The serial disasters of the 21st century will be – to some extent – a matter of perception. It will feel like we are bouncing from disaster-to-disaster in-part because of the shrinking of the world and the ubiquity of communications technology. Anderson Cooper and Sanjay Gupta are always in a disaster zone somewhere – demanding to know why the cavalry [ emergency first responders ] has not showed up.

Third [ 3rd ], we should think in terms of ‘how we can boost’ our “societal resilience;” the buzz-word in the ‘disaster preparedness industry’.

Think of what you would do, and what your community would do, after a disaster.

You cannot always dodge the disaster, but perhaps you can still figure-out how to recover quickly.

How would we ‘communicate’ if we got [ solar ] flared by the Sun and the [ electricity ] grid went down over 2/3rds of the country?

How would we even know what was going on?

Maybe we need to have the occasional “18th Century weekend” – to see how people might get through a couple of days without the [ electricity ] grid, cell [ telephone ] towers, cable TV [ television ], iTunes downloads – the full Hobbesian nightmare. And make an emergency plan: Buy some ‘batteries’ [ < ? > NOTE: solar flare effects, during a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ), renders ‘all batteries dead’. ] and jugs of water – just for starters.

Figure-out how things around you work.

Learn about your community infrastructure.

Read about science, technology, engineering and ‘do not worry if you do not understand all the jargon’.

And then – having done that – go on about your lives, pursuing happiness on a planet that, though sometimes dangerous, is by-far the best one we’ve got.

Reference

http://www.slate.com/id/2294013/pagenum/all/#p2

– –

Hopefully, people will take an opportunity to read the CARV report on Solar Energetic Particle Event Effects so they can ‘really know what to prepare for soon’,  ’before celebrating’ an “18th Century weekend” affair – complete with “batteries” – as suggested by the MSN Slate News article ( above ).

Although the aforementioned Slate News article indicates, “Solar flares, scientists believe, are a disaster waiting to happen. Thus one of the sessions at the American Physical Society annual meeting was devoted to discussing the hazard of electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) caused by solar flares – or terrorist attacks. Such pulses ( EMP ) could fry transformers and knock out the electrical grid over much of the nation. Last year the Oak Ridge National Laboratory released a study saying the damage might take years to fix and cost trillions of dollars. But maybe even that is not the disaster people should be worrying about,” – we actually ‘may’ have ‘something “people should be worrying about,” as MSNBC puts it, or “concerned about,” according to NASA, in-lieu of the following MSNBC Space.Com report ( below ):

– – – –

 

Source: MSNBC.COM

 

Huge Solar Flare’s Magnetic Storm May Disrupt Satellites, Power Grids

 

March 7, 2012 13:19 p.m. Eastern Standard Time ( EST )

 

A massive solar flare that erupted from the Sun late Tuesday ( March 6, 2012 ) is unleashing one of the most powerful solar storms in more than 5-years, ‘a solar tempest that may potentially interfere with satellites in orbit and power grids when it reaches Earth’.

 

“Space weather has gotten very interesting over the last 24 hours,” Joseph Kunches, a space weather scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ), told reporters today ( March 7, 2012 ). “This was quite the Super Tuesday — you bet.”

 

Several NASA spacecraft caught videos of the solar flare as it hurled a wave of solar plasma and charged particles, called a Coronal mass Ejection ( CME ), into space. The CME is not expected to hit Earth directly, but the cloud of charged particles could deliver a glancing blow to the planet.

 

Early predictions estimate that the Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) will reach Earth tomorrow ( March 8, 2012 ) at 07:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time ( EST ), with the ‘effects likely lasting for 24-hours and possibly lingering into Friday ( March 9, 2012 )’, Kunches said.

 

The solar eruptions occurred late Tuesday night ( March 6, 2012 ) when the sun let loose two ( 2 ) huge X-Class solar flares that ‘ranked among the strongest type’ of sun storms. The biggest of those 2 flares registered as an X Class Category 5.4 solar flare geomagnetic storm on the space weather scale, making it ‘the strongest sun eruption so far this year’.

 

Typically, Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) contain 10,000,000,000 billion tons of solar plasma and material, and the CME triggered by last night’s ( March 6, 2012 ) X-Class Category 5.4 solar flare is ‘the one’ that could disrupt satellite operations, Kunches said.

 

“When the shock arrives, the expectation is for heightened geomagnetic storm activity and the potential for heightened solar radiation,” Kunches said.

 

This heightened geomagnetic activity and increase in solar radiation could impact satellites in space and ‘power grids on the ground’.

 

Some high-precision GPS ( Global Positioning Satellite ) users could also be affected, he said.

 

“There is the potential for ‘induced currents in power grids’,” Kunches said. “‘Power grid operators have all been alerted’. It could start to ’cause some unwanted induced currents’.”

 

Airplanes that fly over the polar caps could also experience communications issues during this time, and some commercial airliners have already taken precautionary actions, Kunches said.

 

Powerful solar storms can also be hazardous to astronauts in space, and NOAA is working close with NASA’s Johnson Space Center to determine if the six ( 6 ) spacecraft residents of the International Space Station ( ISS ) need to take shelter in more protected areas of the orbiting laboratory, he added.

 

The flurry of recent space weather events could also supercharge aurora displays ( also known as the Northern Lights and Southern Lights ) for sky-watchers at high latitudes.

 

“Auroras are probably the treat that we get when the sun erupts,” Kunches said.

 

Over the next couple days, Kunches estimates that brightened auroras could potentially be seen as far south as the southern Great Lakes region, provided the skies are clear.

 

Yesterday’s ( March 6, 2012 ) solar flares erupted from the giant active sunspot AR1429, which spewed an earlier X Class Category 1.1 solar flare on Sunday ( March 4, 2012 ). The CME from that one ( 1 ) outburst mostly missed Earth, passing Earth by last night ( March 6, 2012 ) at around 11 p.m. EST, according to the Space Weather Prediction Center ( SWPC ), which is jointly managed by NOAA and the National Weather Service ( NWS ).

 

This means that the planet ( Earth ) is ‘already experiencing heightened geomagnetic and radiation effects in-advance’ of the next oncoming ( March 8, 2012 thru March 9, 2012 ) Coronal Mass Ejection ( CME ).

 

“We’ve got ‘a whole series of things going off’, and ‘they take different times to arrive’, so they’re ‘all piling on top of each other’,” Harlan Spence, an astrophysicist at the University of New Hampshire, told SPACE.com. “It ‘complicates the forecasting and predicting’ because ‘there are always inherent uncertainties with any single event’ but now ‘with multiple events piling on top of one another’, that ‘uncertainty grows’.”

 

Scientists are closely monitoring the situation, particularly because ‘the AR1429 sunspot region remains potent’. “We think ‘there will be more coming’,” Kunches said. “The ‘potential for more activity’ still looms.”

 

As the Sun rotates, ‘the AR1429 region is shifting closer to the central meridian of the solar disk where flares and associated Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) may ‘pack more a punch’ because ‘they are more directly pointed at Earth’.

 

“The Sun is waking up at a time in the month when ‘Earth is coming into harms way’,” Spence said. “Think of these ‘CMEs somewhat like a bullet that is shot from the sun in more or less a straight line’. ‘When the sunspot is right in the middle of the sun’, something ‘launched from there is more or less directed right at Earth’. It’s kind of like how getting sideswiped by a car is different than ‘a head-on collision’. Even still, being ‘sideswiped by a big CME can be quite dramatic’.” Spence estimates that ‘sunspot region AR 1429 will rotate past the central meridian in about 1-week’.

 

The sun’s activity ebbs and flows on an 11-year cycle. The sun is in the midst of Solar Maximum Cycle 24, and activity is expected to ramp up toward the height of the Solar Maximum in 2013.

 

Reference

 

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/46655901/

 

– – – –

Do we need “Planetary Protection?” NASA has a specific website, referenced here ( below ) as do others ( below ), including The Guardians of the Millennium.

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

Reference

http://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/about/ [ Planetary Protection ) http://www.lpi.usra.edu/captem/ [ CAPTEM ] http://www.nrl.navy.mil/pao/pressRelease.php?Y=2008&R=39-08r [ U.S. Naval Research Laboratory ] http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/imager.htm [ RHESSI ]

 

Secret HFSE Properties Part 1

[ PHOTO ( above ): HFSE Super-Conducting Electro-Magnetic Pyroclastic Magma – Iceland volcano eruption ( click image to enlarge ) ]

Secret HFSE Properties – Part 1
Emerging Superconducting Magnetic Element Properties
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

December 1, 2011 16:08: 42 (PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: December 9, 2010 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – December 1, 2011 – In 1961, BELL LABORATORIES ( USA ) physicist Eugene Kunzler and co-workers discovered that niobium–tin continued exhibition of superconductivity while in the presence of strong electric currents and magnetic fields, which made niobium-tin the first [ 1st ] material used to support High Field Strength ( HFS ) electrical currents and magnetic field strengths necessary for use in high-power electro-magnets and electrical power machines.

20-years later, the aforementioned discovery allowed production of niobium doped metallic wire wrapped into multi-strand form cables wound into coils creating powerful electro-magnetic force applications seen in particle accelerators, particle detectors, and rotating machines.

High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) holds far greater use from such properties than most professionals and the public realize so, before advancing any further on this subject, a basic foundation of understanding on such materials, elements and their valuable properties must be realized about this ‘extremely old Earth energy resource’, ‘how to harvest it ( from its original molten state )’, ‘how to capture and contain its volatile properties’, and then ‘transform it into applications’ for transportation – ‘yet unrealized factual knowledge’ on this extremely low-cost extremely powerful high-energy resource.

Niobium ( Nb ) –

[ photo ( above ): Niobium ( .9995 fine) crystals ( click to enlarge ) ]

Titanmagnetite (aka) Titanomagnetite mineral, under Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrography ( XRS ), holds detected high measurements [ from 350 ppm ( parts per million ) up to 1,000 ppm ] of the geochemical High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium [ Nb ].

‘Where’ does such a ‘mineral’ ( titanmagnetite ) ‘element’ ( niobium ) originate? Volcanic magma.

‘Where’ are specific locations holding volcanic magma Niobium element properties that possess even ’higher field strength’ magnetics – ‘at least’ six ( 6 ) times greater? The Mariana Trench or other ultra-deep sea continental plate arc locations where volcanoes exist either ‘quite active’ or ‘somewhat dormant’.

Readers may begin to awaken from any slumber when they realize that ultra-deep sea ground trench ( arc ) volcano magma, naturally located nearer to the planet Earth molten liquid superconducting magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) ’core’, sees element properties of Niobium absorbing far purer forms of High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) magnetic properties while within its ‘natural molten liquid state’. Interestingly, nowhere else ‘above ultra-deep sea Earth elevations’ obtain more natural energy power.

How can such a volatile molten resource be ‘excavated’ while simultaneously being isolated from any exposure to contaminations from ‘seawater’, ‘oxygen’ or other environmentals to harness high-energy properties?

The molten material would  additionally have to be placed into a likewise uncontaminated ‘ultra-clean chamber’, whereupon after transport, ’high-energy properties extraction’ must undergo a ‘seamless application process’ for utilization.

What type of use? More basic fundamentals must be initially understood so, let’s begin by taking a look at what’s bubbling out of ultra-deep sea volcano vents and instantly becoming contaminated by seawater ( below ):

[ photo ( above ): Ultra-Deep Sea Trench Arc Volcanic Magma Vent ( click to enlarge ) ]

Preliminary report Part 1 ( herein ) displays a photograph of an above-ground volcano eruption in Iceland experiencing plenty of superconducting High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) property fireworks, however far too little information is ever realized by the public about what ultra-deep sea trench arc volcano magmatic material element properties hold ‘naturally’ as primary key elements to a variety of other advancements.

Volcanic magma, in later stage differentiation, sees Niobium [ Nb ] and Titanium [ Ti ] ratios ‘increase’ five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times above normal ( dry magma melts ).

To comprehend this, along with the importance of harnessing natural Earth high-energy magnetic properties, a basic understanding must be reached from what science, physics and astrophysics indications always seem to avoid for the public.

The purpose of this preliminary report Part 1 is to bring rare knowledge into better public understanding while stimulating solution-minded professionals wishing more done.

Have scientists, physicists, and astrophysicists ‘missed some major solution’ in their discoveries? Are portions of certain discoveries ‘kept quite’ considering serious repercussions? While highly doubtful that any small discovery having a major impact missed any application outlook, ramifications nevertheless are considered by professionals on whether a socio-economic impact will allowed to be proven helpful or otherwise.

Good advice may be to buckle your seatbelt because you are about to venture into some information few have ever known about. Whether most of those reading this may be able to absorb this information ( below ) now, or later, it is suspected that after much easier reading comes in Part 2 through Part 5, most will probably refer back to Part 1 ( herein ).

– – – –

Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 )

Introduction –

High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Niobium

Niobium enrichment, is possible, using two ( 2 ) natural rock-forming minerals:

– Titanmagnetite [ 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ]; and, – Kaersutite [ 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ].

General Information:

Rock-forming Minerals: Titanmagnetite ( element symbols: Ttn/Mag ), and Kaersutite ( Krs ). Elements [ symbols ]: Titanite ( Ttn ), Magnetite ( Mag ) Geochemical Element [ symbols ]: Niobium ( Nb )

Studies & Resolutions –

Subject: Natural High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Materials

Titanmagnetite [ Ttn/Mag ] is a natural super-magnetic mineral, that later experiences a geochemical alteration reducing its magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) properties, as it exits ultra-deep sea arc volcanic magma influenced by hydrothermal fluid seawater ( see “Findings” below ). In its natural magma state where Titanmagnetite ( Ti/Mag ) holds its 6 [ X ] times greater High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) than above-ground.

Niobium ( Nb ) High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) properties can be enhanced even greater by adding only one ( 1 ) mineral, Kaersutite ( Krs ).

For applications, extracting this natural combinatoric high-energy power may not easily be obtained.

Extraction Processes: Capturing Natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Obtaining these properties may be resolved, however while natural initial ingress of high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluid occurences at liquid melts [ magma ] have seen amphibole-plagioclase thermometry suggests ‘fracture and grain’ boundary ‘permeability’ – with seawater derived fluids – ‘open’ over similar temperature interval, however venturing into ultra-deep sea trench arcs and then burroughing into natural state volcanic magma dome vents capturing natural essence of titanmagnetite, and then containing it for processing HFSE properties further may be difficult so, is there an alternative to this type of extraction?

Above-ground experiment observations see major trace geochemical element fractionation trends in bulk rocks and minerals reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry [ magma ] melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) with oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

[ photo ( above ): NASA Astrophysics Data System ( ADS ) ]

Preliminary Findings ( A – F  – below ) –

– – – –

A.

[ NOTE: Titanmagnetite mineral geochemical element Niobium … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 29, Issue 8, pp.807-820

DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(65)90081-5

Bibliographic Code: 1965GeCoA..29..807H

Die verteilung des niobs in den gesteinen und mineralen der alkalibasalt-assoziation der hocheifel by, Hans Gerhard Huckenholz

Publication Date: August 1965

Abstract –

Niobium [ Nb ] contents are determined by the method of fluorescent X-ray spectrography [ FXRS ] for several rock types from the Tertiary Hocheifel volcanic province ( Western Germany ).

Alkalic olivine basalt, contains:

65 ppm Niobium [ Nb ] ( 7 samples );  69 ppm hawaiite ( 4 samples );  86 ppm mugearite ( 3 samples );  95 ppm trachyte ( 5 samples ); 77 ppm basanitoid ( 6 samples );  65 ppm ankaramite ( 2 samples ); 110 ppm hauyne-bearing alkali basalt ( 2 samples ); and,  86 ppm a monchiquite dike.

Niobium enrichment, is observed in the alkalic olivine basalt trachyte [ magma ] series where, in later stage differentiation, Nb [ Niobium ] / Ti ratio increases five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times.

Alkalic olivine basalt magma, however becomes poorer [ less rich ] in niobium [ Nb ] by accumulation of:

– olivine [ 10 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ]; and, – clinopyroxene [ 20 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ].

Enrichment of niobium [ Nb ] is possible by taking-up titanmagnetite ( 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb [ Niobium ] ) and kaersutite ( 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb [ niobium ] ) without olivine and clinopyroxene ( ankaramite HF 5, and the basanitoids ).

The most Nb [ Niobium ] bearing rock-forming mineral is titanmagnetite, containing 65%  to 85% niobium ( in volcanic rock ), however ground-mass clinopyroxene has contents of Niobium [ Nb ] up to 45 ppm, and feldspars have contents of Nb [ Niobium ] up to 67 ppm.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965GeCoA..29..807H

– – – –

B.

[ NOTE: ICP-MS analysis on trace geochemical element ( Niobium, etc. ) enrichment ( 5X greater than normal ) … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: December 2008

Title: Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu – Bonin – Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya

Authors: Basu, A. R.; Ghatak, A.; Arima, M.; Srimal, N.

Affiliation:

AA ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; abasu@earth.rochester.edu ); AB ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; arun@earth.rochester.edu ); AC ( Yokohama National University, Division of Natural and Environmental Information, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan; arima@ed.ynu.ac.jp ); AD ( Florida International University, Department of Earth Sciences PC 344, University Park 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, Fl 33199, United States; srimal@fiu.edu ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #V33C-2228

Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes ( 3060, 3613, 8170, 8413 ), 1036 Magma chamber processes ( 3618 ), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry ( 3620 ), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry

Bibliographic Code: 2008AGUFM.V33C2228B

Abstract

In this study we attempt to contribute to the understanding of a prominent feature, namely the Nb [ Niobium ] – Ta [ Tantalum ] depletion, in arc magmatic trace element geochemistry.

Traditionally, this depletion is explained by residual mantle-wedge phases with Nb [ Niobium ] and Ta [ Tantalum ] affinities, such as titaniferous ilmenite [ Ilm ], rutile [ Rt ] or titanite [ Ttn ], or by an amphibole.

Here, we propose a mechanism – long advocated – to explain the calc-alkaline trend ( Bowen vs. Fenner ) in MgO – FeO ( total Fe ) – ( Na2O + K2O ) ternary diagram by early crystallization and separation of magnetite in ‘subduction zone magmas’ associated with ‘high oxygen’ fugacity ‘environments’.

In support of our hypothesis, we provide high-precision multiple trace element data, including the High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ), in separated magnetites and mafic mineral phases from mafic ‘magmatic enclaves’ associated with ‘tonalite suites’ of two [ 2 ] different ‘magmatic arcs’, the:

– Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone in Japan; and, – Ladakh Batholith Complex of NW Himalayas.

The Tanzawa Complex is composed of diverse rock suites with SiO2 varying from 43% – 75%, ranging from hornblende gabbro through tonalite to leuco-tonalite. The geochemical characteristics of low K – tholeiites, enrichment of Large Ion Lithophile Elements ( LILE ), and depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in rocks of this plutonic complex are similar to those observed in the volcanic rocks of the IBM arc.

The Ladakh batholith Complex is one of the granitic belts exposed north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh, representing calc-alkaline plutonism related to the subduction of the Neotethys floor in Late Cretaceous. This batholith comprises predominantly I-type granites with whole rock delta delta 18O values of 5.7-7.4 per mil, without major contribution from continental crustal material.

In separated magnetites, from five [ 5 ] gabbros of the Tanzawa tonalite-gabbro complex and from three [ 3 ] tonalitic gabbros of the Ladakh batholith, we analyzed 22 trace elements by ICP-MS, including:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Hf [ Hafnium ]; and, Zr [ Zirconium ].

In NMORB [ N Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt ] normalized plots, the trace element patterns of all the magnetites analyzed show enrichment ( 5X NMORB ), in:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Pb [ Lead ]; Sr [ Strontium ]; and, ( 2X NMORB ), in: Zr [ Zirconium ] with characteristically high Nb [ Niobium ], Ta [ Tantalum ] and Zr[ Zirconium ] / Hf [ Hafnium ] ratios.

In contrast, the patterns show anomalously low ( less than 0.1 NMORB ), in:

La [ Lanthanum ]; Ce [ Cesium ]; Pr [ Praseodymium ]; Nd [ Neodymium ]; Sm [ Samarium ]; and, Hf [ Hafnium ] concentrations.

It is noteworthy that in the normalized trace element plot, all the magnetites show ‘high’ Nb [ Niobium ] / Ta ratios, and in contrast with high Ta / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios were observed in typical arc [ volcanic ] magmas.

These data support our hypothesis, that:

Magmatic crystallization, of Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides ( under high oxygen fugacity conditions ) during ‘initial crystallization and formation’ ( of the Izu-Bonin and Ladakh-type arc batholiths ) may be the primary cause of depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in later magmatic differentiates of less mafic and more felsic granitic arc rocks.

Query Results from the ADS Database

Retrieved 1 abstracts, starting with number 1.

Total number selected: 1.

@ARTICLE{2008AGUFM.V33C2228B,

author = {{ Basu }, A.~R. and {Ghatak}, A. and { Arima }, M. and { Srimal }, N. }

title = “{ Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya }”

journal = {AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts},

keywords = {1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes (3060, 3613, 8170, 8413), 1036 Magma chamber processes (3618), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry (3620), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry},

year = 2008, month = dec, pages = { C2228+ }

ADS url = http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V33C2228B ADS note = Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V33C2228B

– – – –

C.

[ NOTE: multi-domain topographic elevation studies on magnetite [ Mag ] and hydrothermal fluid affection … ]

Publication Date: December 2007

Title: Spatial Distribution of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Mt. Barcroft Granodiorite, White Mountains, California: Implications for Arc Magmatic Processes

Authors: Michelsen, K. J.; Ferre, E. C.; Law, R. D.; Boyd, J. D.; Ernst, G. W.; de Saint-Blanquat, M.

Affiliation:

AA ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; kmichels@vt.edu ); AB ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; eferre@geo.siu.edu );’ AC ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; rdlaw@vt.edu ); AD ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; jdboyd77@yahoo.com ); AE ( Stanford University, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, United States ; ernst@geo.stanford.edu ); AF ( Universite Paul Sabatier, LMTG, Toulouse, 31400, France ; michel@lmtg.obs-mip.fr ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #T11B-0567   Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 3640 Igneous petrology, 3660 Metamorphic petrology, 8104 Continental margins: convergent, 8170 Subduction zone processes ( 1031, 3060, 3613, 8413 )

Bibliographic Code: 2007AGUFM.T11B0567M

Abstract

The petrographic or chemical zonation of plutons, has been widely studied and used to constrain petrogenetic processes and emplacement mechanisms.

The time involved in modal data collection, as well as the cost of chemical analyses, makes the search for pluton-scale zoning patterns the exception rather than the norm in ‘magmatic arc studies’, however magnetic susceptibility ( Km ) of plutonic rocks – both magnetite bearing and magnetite free – can be an invaluable tool to quickly assess the internal organization of any pluton.

New field observations, new magnetic mineral data, and reprocessed Km data on the Barcroft granodiorite pluton ( White Mountains, California ) are presented.

The average Km of 660 specimens from 76 stations ranges from 140 x 10-6 [ SI ] to 75000 x 10-6 [ SI ] with an average at about 16800 x 10-6 [ SI ].

The distribution of Km is unimodal.

The hysteresis parameters of the Barcroft rocks indicate that Km is controlled mainly by multi-domain magnetite.

The contribution of mafic silicates ( biotite and hornblende ) to Km ranges from 0.4 to 99%, with an average at about 1.8%.

As in many other ferromagnetic ( i.e. magnetite – bearing ) plutons, Km variations reflect different amounts of magnetite which itself results from petrographic variations.

This is supported by the positive correlation between major oxide variations ( e.g., SiO2, FeO ) and Km.

A new Km map of the Barcroft pluton shows several important features including, a:

(a) Low Km zone in the SW corner of the pluton, near areas that exhibit economic mineralization possibly related to hydrothermal fluids;

(b) Few isolated anomalies that may be attributed to transformation of normal magnetite into lodestone;

(c) North south high Km ridge that could possibly result from local mingling between the main granodiorite rock type and syn-plutonic mafic dikes;

(d) Broad reverse Km zonation ( i.e. higher Km in the centre ); and,

(e) Possible ‘positive correlation between Km’ and ‘topographic elevation ( between 5,000 and 13,000 feet )’, which could be explained by a higher fO2 at a higher structural level in the chamber.

These preliminary results suggest that, the:

(1) Syn-plutonic diking may play a significant role in the geochemical differentiation of granodiorite plutons;

(2) Classic dichotomy between ilmenite [ Ilm ] series and magnetite [ Mag ] series of granitoids might at least – to some extent – depend on the ‘exposure level’ if such intrusions are confirmed to be vertically differentiated; and,

(3) Mapping Km in a ferromagnetic pluton can be an efficient tool to constrain its internal organization.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T11B0567M

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D.

[ NOTE: geochemistry and petrology of deep oceanic crust geothermal high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluids … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: November 2002

Title: Petrology and geochemistry of the lower ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise and exposed at Hess Deep: A synthesis and new results

Authors: Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Thompson, G. M.; Hékinian, R.

Publication: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Volume 3, Issue 11, pp. 1, CiteID 8604, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000230 (GGG Homepage)

Origin: AGU [ http://www.agu.org ]

AGU Keywords: Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Igneous petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Metamorphic petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Minor and trace element composition.

Bibliographic Code: 2002GGG….3kQ…1C

Abstract

The geochemistry and petrology of the lower oceanic crust record information about the compositions of melts extracted from the mantle, how these melts mix and crystallize, and the role of hydrothermal circulation in this portion of the crust.

Unfortunately, lower oceanic crust formed at fast spreading ridges is rarely exposed at the seafloor making it difficult to study these processes.

At Hess Deep, crust formed at the East Pacific Rise ( EPR ) is exposed due to the propagation of the Cocos-Nazca spreading center westward.

Here we review our state of knowledge of the petrology of lower crustal material from Hess Deep, and document new mineral major and trace element compositions, amphibole-plagioclase thermometry, and plagioclase crystal size distributions.

Samples from the deeper parts of the gabbroic sequence contain clinopyroxene that is close to being in trace element equilibrium with erupted basalts but which can contain primitive ( moderate Cr, high Mg# ) orthopyroxene and very calcic plagioclase.

Because primitive Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ( MORB / MORBs ) are not saturated with orthopyroxene or very calcic plagioclase this suggests that melts added to the crust have variable compositions and that some may be in major but not trace element equilibrium with shallow depleted mantle.

These apparently conflicting data, are most readily explained if some of the melt – extracted from the mantle – is fully aggregated within the mantle but reacts with the shallow mantle during melt extraction.

The occurrence of cumulates, with these characteristics, suggests that ‘melts added to the crust’ do not all get mixed with normal MORB [ Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ] in the Axial Magma Chamber ( AMC ), but rather that ‘some melts partially crystallize’ in isolation within the lower crust.

However, evidence that primitive melts fed the AMC [ Axial Magma Chamber ], along with steep fabrics in shallow gabbros ( from near the base of the dyke complex ), provides support for models in which crystallization within the AMC followed by crystal subsidence is also an important process in lower crustal accretion.

More evolved bulk compositions of gabbros ( from the upper than lower parts of the plutonic section ), are due to greater amounts of ‘reaction with interstitial melt’ and not because their parental melt had become highly fractionated through the formation of large volumes of cumulates deeper in the crust.

Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry confirms, previous reports, that the initial ingress of fluid occurs at high-temperatures in the shallow gabbros ( Tave 713° C ) and show that the temperature of amphibole formation was similar in deeper gabbros ( Tave 722°C ).

This thermometry also suggests that fracture and grain boundary permeability for seawater derived fluids was open over the same temperature interval.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GGG….3kQ…1C

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E.

[ NOTE: analysis of new major data and trace element data from minerals … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: December 2010

Title: The `Daly Gap’ and implications for magma differentiation in composite shield volcanoes: A case study from Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand

Authors: Hartung, E.; Kennedy, B.; Deering, C. D.; Trent, A.; Gane, J.; Turnbull, R. E.; Brown, S.

Affiliation:

AA ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; eha63@uclive.ac.nz ); AB ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ben.kennedy@canterbury.ac.nz );

AC ( Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; cdeering@u.washington.edu );

AD ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ajt121@pg.canterbury.ac.nz ); AE ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; jtg29@uclive.ac.nz ); AF ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ret26@student.canterbury.ac.nz ); AG ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; stephen.brown@canterbury.ac.nz ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #V52B-02

Origin: AGU

Keywords: [ 3610 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Geochemical modeling, [ 3618 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Magma chamber processes, [ 3620 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Mineral and crystal chemistry, [ 3640 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Igneous petrology

Bibliographic Code: 2010AGUFM.V52B..02H

Abstract

The origin of compositional gaps in volcanic deposits that are found worldwide, and in a range of different tectonic settings, has challenged petrologists since Daly’s first observations at mid-ocean ridges.

In the shield-forming Akaroa Volcano ( 9.6 – 8.6 Ma ) of Banks Peninsula ( New Zealand ), a dramatic compositional gap exists in both eruptive and co-genetic intrusive products between basalt and trachyte, and between gabbro and syenite respectively.

Rock compositions display mildly alkaline affinities ranging from picritic basalt, olivine alkali basalt, and hawaiite, to trachyte.

Intermediate mugearite and benmoreite ( 50 – 60 wt. % SiO2 ) are not exposed or absent.

Equivalent plutonic diorite, monzodiorite, and monzonite ( 45 – 65 wt. % SiO2 ) are also absent.

Previously, the formation of the more evolved trachyte and syenite has been ascribed to ‘crustal melting’, however our analysis of new major data and trace element data from bulk-rocks and minerals – of this hy-normative intraplate alkalic suite – provide evidence based on crystal fractionation and punctuated melt extraction for an alternative model.

In bulk rocks observed major and trace element fractionation trends can be reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) at oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

The results of our MELTS models are in agreement with experimental studies, and indicate a fractionation generated compositional gap where trachytic liquid ( 62 – 64 wt. % SiO2 ) has been extracted after the melt has reached a crystallinity of 65% – 70 %.

The fractionated assemblage, of:

– clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – plagioclase; – magnetite; and, – apatite.

All [ of the aforementioned ] are left in a mafic cumulate residue ( 44 – 46 wt. % SiO2 ).

Calculated values of specific trace and minor elements ( Sr [ Strontium ], Cr [ Chromium ], P [ Phosphorus ] ) from a theoretical cumulate are consistent with measured concentrations from cumulate xenoliths. ‘ Compositional trends from individual mineral analysis are also supportive of fractional crystallization, but illustrate a disrupted ‘liquid line of decent for each mineral phase.

Olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions progressively decrease in Mg [ Magnesium ] concentration ( Fo83-42 ) in basaltic [ magma ] melts and shows high Fe [ Iron ] concentration in trachytic melts ( Fo5-10 ).

Clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] analyses also displays higher Fe [ Iron ] / Mg [ Magnesium ] ratios in more evolved rocks.

Ternary feldspar [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions shift from plagioclase ( An84-56 ) in basalt to alkali feldspar ( Or8-65Ab53-33An39-2 ) [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] in trachyte, but also lack the intermediate compositions.

On the other hand, analysis of mafic cumulate xenoliths reflect more evolved mineral compositions – towards the rim than volcanic equivalents – and complete observed fractionation trends.

In summary, our results indicate that these compositional gaps formed from punctuated melt extraction within an optimal crystal fraction window ( 60% – 70 % crystallinity ).

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V52B..02H

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F.

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: October 1996

Title: The Aurora volcanic field, California-Nevada: oxygen fugacity constraints on the development of andesitic magma

Authors: Lange, R. A.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

Affiliation:

AA ( Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ); AB ( Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ).

Publication: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Volume 125, Issue 2/3, pp. 167-185 (1996). (CoMP Homepage)   Origin: SPRINGER

DOI: 10.1007/s004100050214

Bibliographic Code: 1996CoMP..125..167L

Abstract

The Aurora volcanic field, located along the northeastern margin of Mono Lake in the Western Great Basin, has erupted a diverse suite of high-K and shoshonitic lava types, with 48 to 76 wt. % SiO2, over the last 3,600,000 million years.

There is no correlation between the age and composition of the lavas.

Three-quarters of the volcanic field consists of evolved ( < 4 wt. % MgO ) basaltic andesite and andesite lava cones and flows, the majority of which contain sparse, euhedral phenocrysts that are normally zoned; there is no evidence of mixed, hybrid magmas.

The average eruption rate over this time period was ˜200 m3/km2/year, which is typical of continental arcs and an order of magnitude lower than that for the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

All of the Aurora lavas display a trace-element signature common to subduction-related magmas, as exemplified by Ba [ Barium ] / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios between 52 and 151.

Pre-eruptive water contents ranged from 1.5 wt. % in plagioclase – rich two-pyroxene andesites to ˜6 wt. % in a single hornblende lamprophyre and several biotite-hornblende andesites.

Calculated oxygen fugacities fall within 0.4 and + 2.4 log units of the Ni-NiO [ Nickel and Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

The Aurora potassic suite, follows a classic calc-alkaline trend in a plot of FeOT / MgO vs. SiO2 and displays linear decreasing trends in FeOT and TiO2 with SiO2 content, suggesting a prominent role for Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides during differentiation.

However, development of the calc-alkaline trend – through fractional crystallization of titanomagnetite – would have caused the residual liquid to become so depleted in ferric iron that its oxygen fugacity would have fallen several log units below that of the Ni [ Nickel ] – NiO [ Nickel – Oxygen ] buffer.

Nor can fractionation of hornblende be invoked, since it has the same effect – as titanomagnetite – in depleting the residual liquid in ferric iron, together with a thermal stability limit that is lower than the eruption temperatures of several andesites ( ˜1040 1080°C ; derived from two-pyroxene thermometry ).

Unless some progressive oxidation process occurs, fractionation of titanomagnetite – or hornblende – cannot explain a calc-alkaline trend in which all erupted lavas have oxygen fugacites ≥ the Ni-NiO [ Nickel – Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

In contrast to fractional crystallization, closed system equilibrium crystallization will produce residual liquids with an oxygen fugacity that is similar to that of the initial melt.

However, the eruption of nearly aphryic lavas argues against tapping from a magma chamber during equilibrium crystallization, a process that requires crystals to remain in contact with the liquid.

A preferred model involves the accumulation of basaltic magmas at the mantle crust interface, which solidify and are later remelted during repeated intrusion of basalt.

As an end – member case, closed – system equilibrium crystallization of a basalt, followed by equilibrium partial melting of the gabbro will produce a calc-alkaline evolved liquid ( namely, high SiO2 [ Silicon-Oxygen / Oxide ] and low FeOT / MgO ) with a relative f O 2 ( corrected for the effect of changing temperature ) that is similar to that of the initial basalt.

Differentiation of the Aurora magmas by repeated partial melting of previous underplates in the lower crust, rather than by crystal fractionation in large stable magma chambers, is consistent with the low eruption rate at the Aurora volcanic field.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996CoMP..125..167L

– – – –

While the aforementioned information material concludes the introductory portion of Part 1 in this preliminary report, more easily understood materialize is intended to be documented in Part 2 through Part 5 ( previewed below ):

Part 2, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 ), is intended to focus on new ‘methods of capturing’ natural essence High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 3, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘discoveries of properties’ from captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 4, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘applied theories’ of natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ); and,

Part 5, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘transports’ having captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ).

 

Submitted for review and commentary by,

 

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
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