Secret HFSE Properties Part 1

[ PHOTO ( above ): HFSE Super-Conducting Electro-Magnetic Pyroclastic Magma – Iceland volcano eruption ( click image to enlarge ) ]

Secret HFSE Properties – Part 1
Emerging Superconducting Magnetic Element Properties
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

December 1, 2011 16:08: 42 (PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: December 9, 2010 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – December 1, 2011 – In 1961, BELL LABORATORIES ( USA ) physicist Eugene Kunzler and co-workers discovered that niobium–tin continued exhibition of superconductivity while in the presence of strong electric currents and magnetic fields, which made niobium-tin the first [ 1st ] material used to support High Field Strength ( HFS ) electrical currents and magnetic field strengths necessary for use in high-power electro-magnets and electrical power machines.

20-years later, the aforementioned discovery allowed production of niobium doped metallic wire wrapped into multi-strand form cables wound into coils creating powerful electro-magnetic force applications seen in particle accelerators, particle detectors, and rotating machines.

High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) holds far greater use from such properties than most professionals and the public realize so, before advancing any further on this subject, a basic foundation of understanding on such materials, elements and their valuable properties must be realized about this ‘extremely old Earth energy resource’, ‘how to harvest it ( from its original molten state )’, ‘how to capture and contain its volatile properties’, and then ‘transform it into applications’ for transportation – ‘yet unrealized factual knowledge’ on this extremely low-cost extremely powerful high-energy resource.

Niobium ( Nb ) –

[ photo ( above ): Niobium ( .9995 fine) crystals ( click to enlarge ) ]

Titanmagnetite (aka) Titanomagnetite mineral, under Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrography ( XRS ), holds detected high measurements [ from 350 ppm ( parts per million ) up to 1,000 ppm ] of the geochemical High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium [ Nb ].

‘Where’ does such a ‘mineral’ ( titanmagnetite ) ‘element’ ( niobium ) originate? Volcanic magma.

‘Where’ are specific locations holding volcanic magma Niobium element properties that possess even ’higher field strength’ magnetics – ‘at least’ six ( 6 ) times greater? The Mariana Trench or other ultra-deep sea continental plate arc locations where volcanoes exist either ‘quite active’ or ‘somewhat dormant’.

Readers may begin to awaken from any slumber when they realize that ultra-deep sea ground trench ( arc ) volcano magma, naturally located nearer to the planet Earth molten liquid superconducting magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) ’core’, sees element properties of Niobium absorbing far purer forms of High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) magnetic properties while within its ‘natural molten liquid state’. Interestingly, nowhere else ‘above ultra-deep sea Earth elevations’ obtain more natural energy power.

How can such a volatile molten resource be ‘excavated’ while simultaneously being isolated from any exposure to contaminations from ‘seawater’, ‘oxygen’ or other environmentals to harness high-energy properties?

The molten material would  additionally have to be placed into a likewise uncontaminated ‘ultra-clean chamber’, whereupon after transport, ’high-energy properties extraction’ must undergo a ‘seamless application process’ for utilization.

What type of use? More basic fundamentals must be initially understood so, let’s begin by taking a look at what’s bubbling out of ultra-deep sea volcano vents and instantly becoming contaminated by seawater ( below ):

[ photo ( above ): Ultra-Deep Sea Trench Arc Volcanic Magma Vent ( click to enlarge ) ]

Preliminary report Part 1 ( herein ) displays a photograph of an above-ground volcano eruption in Iceland experiencing plenty of superconducting High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) property fireworks, however far too little information is ever realized by the public about what ultra-deep sea trench arc volcano magmatic material element properties hold ‘naturally’ as primary key elements to a variety of other advancements.

Volcanic magma, in later stage differentiation, sees Niobium [ Nb ] and Titanium [ Ti ] ratios ‘increase’ five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times above normal ( dry magma melts ).

To comprehend this, along with the importance of harnessing natural Earth high-energy magnetic properties, a basic understanding must be reached from what science, physics and astrophysics indications always seem to avoid for the public.

The purpose of this preliminary report Part 1 is to bring rare knowledge into better public understanding while stimulating solution-minded professionals wishing more done.

Have scientists, physicists, and astrophysicists ‘missed some major solution’ in their discoveries? Are portions of certain discoveries ‘kept quite’ considering serious repercussions? While highly doubtful that any small discovery having a major impact missed any application outlook, ramifications nevertheless are considered by professionals on whether a socio-economic impact will allowed to be proven helpful or otherwise.

Good advice may be to buckle your seatbelt because you are about to venture into some information few have ever known about. Whether most of those reading this may be able to absorb this information ( below ) now, or later, it is suspected that after much easier reading comes in Part 2 through Part 5, most will probably refer back to Part 1 ( herein ).

– – – –

Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 )

Introduction –

High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Niobium

Niobium enrichment, is possible, using two ( 2 ) natural rock-forming minerals:

– Titanmagnetite [ 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ]; and, – Kaersutite [ 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ].

General Information:

Rock-forming Minerals: Titanmagnetite ( element symbols: Ttn/Mag ), and Kaersutite ( Krs ). Elements [ symbols ]: Titanite ( Ttn ), Magnetite ( Mag ) Geochemical Element [ symbols ]: Niobium ( Nb )

Studies & Resolutions –

Subject: Natural High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Materials

Titanmagnetite [ Ttn/Mag ] is a natural super-magnetic mineral, that later experiences a geochemical alteration reducing its magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) properties, as it exits ultra-deep sea arc volcanic magma influenced by hydrothermal fluid seawater ( see “Findings” below ). In its natural magma state where Titanmagnetite ( Ti/Mag ) holds its 6 [ X ] times greater High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) than above-ground.

Niobium ( Nb ) High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) properties can be enhanced even greater by adding only one ( 1 ) mineral, Kaersutite ( Krs ).

For applications, extracting this natural combinatoric high-energy power may not easily be obtained.

Extraction Processes: Capturing Natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Obtaining these properties may be resolved, however while natural initial ingress of high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluid occurences at liquid melts [ magma ] have seen amphibole-plagioclase thermometry suggests ‘fracture and grain’ boundary ‘permeability’ – with seawater derived fluids – ‘open’ over similar temperature interval, however venturing into ultra-deep sea trench arcs and then burroughing into natural state volcanic magma dome vents capturing natural essence of titanmagnetite, and then containing it for processing HFSE properties further may be difficult so, is there an alternative to this type of extraction?

Above-ground experiment observations see major trace geochemical element fractionation trends in bulk rocks and minerals reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry [ magma ] melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) with oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

[ photo ( above ): NASA Astrophysics Data System ( ADS ) ]

Preliminary Findings ( A – F  – below ) –

– – – –

A.

[ NOTE: Titanmagnetite mineral geochemical element Niobium … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 29, Issue 8, pp.807-820

DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(65)90081-5

Bibliographic Code: 1965GeCoA..29..807H

Die verteilung des niobs in den gesteinen und mineralen der alkalibasalt-assoziation der hocheifel by, Hans Gerhard Huckenholz

Publication Date: August 1965

Abstract –

Niobium [ Nb ] contents are determined by the method of fluorescent X-ray spectrography [ FXRS ] for several rock types from the Tertiary Hocheifel volcanic province ( Western Germany ).

Alkalic olivine basalt, contains:

65 ppm Niobium [ Nb ] ( 7 samples );  69 ppm hawaiite ( 4 samples );  86 ppm mugearite ( 3 samples );  95 ppm trachyte ( 5 samples ); 77 ppm basanitoid ( 6 samples );  65 ppm ankaramite ( 2 samples ); 110 ppm hauyne-bearing alkali basalt ( 2 samples ); and,  86 ppm a monchiquite dike.

Niobium enrichment, is observed in the alkalic olivine basalt trachyte [ magma ] series where, in later stage differentiation, Nb [ Niobium ] / Ti ratio increases five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times.

Alkalic olivine basalt magma, however becomes poorer [ less rich ] in niobium [ Nb ] by accumulation of:

– olivine [ 10 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ]; and, – clinopyroxene [ 20 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ].

Enrichment of niobium [ Nb ] is possible by taking-up titanmagnetite ( 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb [ Niobium ] ) and kaersutite ( 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb [ niobium ] ) without olivine and clinopyroxene ( ankaramite HF 5, and the basanitoids ).

The most Nb [ Niobium ] bearing rock-forming mineral is titanmagnetite, containing 65%  to 85% niobium ( in volcanic rock ), however ground-mass clinopyroxene has contents of Niobium [ Nb ] up to 45 ppm, and feldspars have contents of Nb [ Niobium ] up to 67 ppm.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965GeCoA..29..807H

– – – –

B.

[ NOTE: ICP-MS analysis on trace geochemical element ( Niobium, etc. ) enrichment ( 5X greater than normal ) … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: December 2008

Title: Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu – Bonin – Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya

Authors: Basu, A. R.; Ghatak, A.; Arima, M.; Srimal, N.

Affiliation:

AA ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; abasu@earth.rochester.edu ); AB ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; arun@earth.rochester.edu ); AC ( Yokohama National University, Division of Natural and Environmental Information, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan; arima@ed.ynu.ac.jp ); AD ( Florida International University, Department of Earth Sciences PC 344, University Park 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, Fl 33199, United States; srimal@fiu.edu ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #V33C-2228

Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes ( 3060, 3613, 8170, 8413 ), 1036 Magma chamber processes ( 3618 ), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry ( 3620 ), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry

Bibliographic Code: 2008AGUFM.V33C2228B

Abstract

In this study we attempt to contribute to the understanding of a prominent feature, namely the Nb [ Niobium ] – Ta [ Tantalum ] depletion, in arc magmatic trace element geochemistry.

Traditionally, this depletion is explained by residual mantle-wedge phases with Nb [ Niobium ] and Ta [ Tantalum ] affinities, such as titaniferous ilmenite [ Ilm ], rutile [ Rt ] or titanite [ Ttn ], or by an amphibole.

Here, we propose a mechanism – long advocated – to explain the calc-alkaline trend ( Bowen vs. Fenner ) in MgO – FeO ( total Fe ) – ( Na2O + K2O ) ternary diagram by early crystallization and separation of magnetite in ‘subduction zone magmas’ associated with ‘high oxygen’ fugacity ‘environments’.

In support of our hypothesis, we provide high-precision multiple trace element data, including the High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ), in separated magnetites and mafic mineral phases from mafic ‘magmatic enclaves’ associated with ‘tonalite suites’ of two [ 2 ] different ‘magmatic arcs’, the:

– Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone in Japan; and, – Ladakh Batholith Complex of NW Himalayas.

The Tanzawa Complex is composed of diverse rock suites with SiO2 varying from 43% – 75%, ranging from hornblende gabbro through tonalite to leuco-tonalite. The geochemical characteristics of low K – tholeiites, enrichment of Large Ion Lithophile Elements ( LILE ), and depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in rocks of this plutonic complex are similar to those observed in the volcanic rocks of the IBM arc.

The Ladakh batholith Complex is one of the granitic belts exposed north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh, representing calc-alkaline plutonism related to the subduction of the Neotethys floor in Late Cretaceous. This batholith comprises predominantly I-type granites with whole rock delta delta 18O values of 5.7-7.4 per mil, without major contribution from continental crustal material.

In separated magnetites, from five [ 5 ] gabbros of the Tanzawa tonalite-gabbro complex and from three [ 3 ] tonalitic gabbros of the Ladakh batholith, we analyzed 22 trace elements by ICP-MS, including:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Hf [ Hafnium ]; and, Zr [ Zirconium ].

In NMORB [ N Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt ] normalized plots, the trace element patterns of all the magnetites analyzed show enrichment ( 5X NMORB ), in:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Pb [ Lead ]; Sr [ Strontium ]; and, ( 2X NMORB ), in: Zr [ Zirconium ] with characteristically high Nb [ Niobium ], Ta [ Tantalum ] and Zr[ Zirconium ] / Hf [ Hafnium ] ratios.

In contrast, the patterns show anomalously low ( less than 0.1 NMORB ), in:

La [ Lanthanum ]; Ce [ Cesium ]; Pr [ Praseodymium ]; Nd [ Neodymium ]; Sm [ Samarium ]; and, Hf [ Hafnium ] concentrations.

It is noteworthy that in the normalized trace element plot, all the magnetites show ‘high’ Nb [ Niobium ] / Ta ratios, and in contrast with high Ta / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios were observed in typical arc [ volcanic ] magmas.

These data support our hypothesis, that:

Magmatic crystallization, of Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides ( under high oxygen fugacity conditions ) during ‘initial crystallization and formation’ ( of the Izu-Bonin and Ladakh-type arc batholiths ) may be the primary cause of depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in later magmatic differentiates of less mafic and more felsic granitic arc rocks.

Query Results from the ADS Database

Retrieved 1 abstracts, starting with number 1.

Total number selected: 1.

@ARTICLE{2008AGUFM.V33C2228B,

author = {{ Basu }, A.~R. and {Ghatak}, A. and { Arima }, M. and { Srimal }, N. }

title = “{ Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya }”

journal = {AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts},

keywords = {1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes (3060, 3613, 8170, 8413), 1036 Magma chamber processes (3618), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry (3620), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry},

year = 2008, month = dec, pages = { C2228+ }

ADS url = http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V33C2228B ADS note = Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V33C2228B

– – – –

C.

[ NOTE: multi-domain topographic elevation studies on magnetite [ Mag ] and hydrothermal fluid affection … ]

Publication Date: December 2007

Title: Spatial Distribution of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Mt. Barcroft Granodiorite, White Mountains, California: Implications for Arc Magmatic Processes

Authors: Michelsen, K. J.; Ferre, E. C.; Law, R. D.; Boyd, J. D.; Ernst, G. W.; de Saint-Blanquat, M.

Affiliation:

AA ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; kmichels@vt.edu ); AB ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; eferre@geo.siu.edu );’ AC ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; rdlaw@vt.edu ); AD ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; jdboyd77@yahoo.com ); AE ( Stanford University, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, United States ; ernst@geo.stanford.edu ); AF ( Universite Paul Sabatier, LMTG, Toulouse, 31400, France ; michel@lmtg.obs-mip.fr ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #T11B-0567   Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 3640 Igneous petrology, 3660 Metamorphic petrology, 8104 Continental margins: convergent, 8170 Subduction zone processes ( 1031, 3060, 3613, 8413 )

Bibliographic Code: 2007AGUFM.T11B0567M

Abstract

The petrographic or chemical zonation of plutons, has been widely studied and used to constrain petrogenetic processes and emplacement mechanisms.

The time involved in modal data collection, as well as the cost of chemical analyses, makes the search for pluton-scale zoning patterns the exception rather than the norm in ‘magmatic arc studies’, however magnetic susceptibility ( Km ) of plutonic rocks – both magnetite bearing and magnetite free – can be an invaluable tool to quickly assess the internal organization of any pluton.

New field observations, new magnetic mineral data, and reprocessed Km data on the Barcroft granodiorite pluton ( White Mountains, California ) are presented.

The average Km of 660 specimens from 76 stations ranges from 140 x 10-6 [ SI ] to 75000 x 10-6 [ SI ] with an average at about 16800 x 10-6 [ SI ].

The distribution of Km is unimodal.

The hysteresis parameters of the Barcroft rocks indicate that Km is controlled mainly by multi-domain magnetite.

The contribution of mafic silicates ( biotite and hornblende ) to Km ranges from 0.4 to 99%, with an average at about 1.8%.

As in many other ferromagnetic ( i.e. magnetite – bearing ) plutons, Km variations reflect different amounts of magnetite which itself results from petrographic variations.

This is supported by the positive correlation between major oxide variations ( e.g., SiO2, FeO ) and Km.

A new Km map of the Barcroft pluton shows several important features including, a:

(a) Low Km zone in the SW corner of the pluton, near areas that exhibit economic mineralization possibly related to hydrothermal fluids;

(b) Few isolated anomalies that may be attributed to transformation of normal magnetite into lodestone;

(c) North south high Km ridge that could possibly result from local mingling between the main granodiorite rock type and syn-plutonic mafic dikes;

(d) Broad reverse Km zonation ( i.e. higher Km in the centre ); and,

(e) Possible ‘positive correlation between Km’ and ‘topographic elevation ( between 5,000 and 13,000 feet )’, which could be explained by a higher fO2 at a higher structural level in the chamber.

These preliminary results suggest that, the:

(1) Syn-plutonic diking may play a significant role in the geochemical differentiation of granodiorite plutons;

(2) Classic dichotomy between ilmenite [ Ilm ] series and magnetite [ Mag ] series of granitoids might at least – to some extent – depend on the ‘exposure level’ if such intrusions are confirmed to be vertically differentiated; and,

(3) Mapping Km in a ferromagnetic pluton can be an efficient tool to constrain its internal organization.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T11B0567M

– – – –

D.

[ NOTE: geochemistry and petrology of deep oceanic crust geothermal high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluids … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: November 2002

Title: Petrology and geochemistry of the lower ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise and exposed at Hess Deep: A synthesis and new results

Authors: Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Thompson, G. M.; Hékinian, R.

Publication: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Volume 3, Issue 11, pp. 1, CiteID 8604, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000230 (GGG Homepage)

Origin: AGU [ http://www.agu.org ]

AGU Keywords: Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Igneous petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Metamorphic petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Minor and trace element composition.

Bibliographic Code: 2002GGG….3kQ…1C

Abstract

The geochemistry and petrology of the lower oceanic crust record information about the compositions of melts extracted from the mantle, how these melts mix and crystallize, and the role of hydrothermal circulation in this portion of the crust.

Unfortunately, lower oceanic crust formed at fast spreading ridges is rarely exposed at the seafloor making it difficult to study these processes.

At Hess Deep, crust formed at the East Pacific Rise ( EPR ) is exposed due to the propagation of the Cocos-Nazca spreading center westward.

Here we review our state of knowledge of the petrology of lower crustal material from Hess Deep, and document new mineral major and trace element compositions, amphibole-plagioclase thermometry, and plagioclase crystal size distributions.

Samples from the deeper parts of the gabbroic sequence contain clinopyroxene that is close to being in trace element equilibrium with erupted basalts but which can contain primitive ( moderate Cr, high Mg# ) orthopyroxene and very calcic plagioclase.

Because primitive Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ( MORB / MORBs ) are not saturated with orthopyroxene or very calcic plagioclase this suggests that melts added to the crust have variable compositions and that some may be in major but not trace element equilibrium with shallow depleted mantle.

These apparently conflicting data, are most readily explained if some of the melt – extracted from the mantle – is fully aggregated within the mantle but reacts with the shallow mantle during melt extraction.

The occurrence of cumulates, with these characteristics, suggests that ‘melts added to the crust’ do not all get mixed with normal MORB [ Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ] in the Axial Magma Chamber ( AMC ), but rather that ‘some melts partially crystallize’ in isolation within the lower crust.

However, evidence that primitive melts fed the AMC [ Axial Magma Chamber ], along with steep fabrics in shallow gabbros ( from near the base of the dyke complex ), provides support for models in which crystallization within the AMC followed by crystal subsidence is also an important process in lower crustal accretion.

More evolved bulk compositions of gabbros ( from the upper than lower parts of the plutonic section ), are due to greater amounts of ‘reaction with interstitial melt’ and not because their parental melt had become highly fractionated through the formation of large volumes of cumulates deeper in the crust.

Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry confirms, previous reports, that the initial ingress of fluid occurs at high-temperatures in the shallow gabbros ( Tave 713° C ) and show that the temperature of amphibole formation was similar in deeper gabbros ( Tave 722°C ).

This thermometry also suggests that fracture and grain boundary permeability for seawater derived fluids was open over the same temperature interval.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GGG….3kQ…1C

– – – –

E.

[ NOTE: analysis of new major data and trace element data from minerals … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: December 2010

Title: The `Daly Gap’ and implications for magma differentiation in composite shield volcanoes: A case study from Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand

Authors: Hartung, E.; Kennedy, B.; Deering, C. D.; Trent, A.; Gane, J.; Turnbull, R. E.; Brown, S.

Affiliation:

AA ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; eha63@uclive.ac.nz ); AB ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ben.kennedy@canterbury.ac.nz );

AC ( Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; cdeering@u.washington.edu );

AD ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ajt121@pg.canterbury.ac.nz ); AE ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; jtg29@uclive.ac.nz ); AF ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ret26@student.canterbury.ac.nz ); AG ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; stephen.brown@canterbury.ac.nz ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #V52B-02

Origin: AGU

Keywords: [ 3610 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Geochemical modeling, [ 3618 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Magma chamber processes, [ 3620 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Mineral and crystal chemistry, [ 3640 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Igneous petrology

Bibliographic Code: 2010AGUFM.V52B..02H

Abstract

The origin of compositional gaps in volcanic deposits that are found worldwide, and in a range of different tectonic settings, has challenged petrologists since Daly’s first observations at mid-ocean ridges.

In the shield-forming Akaroa Volcano ( 9.6 – 8.6 Ma ) of Banks Peninsula ( New Zealand ), a dramatic compositional gap exists in both eruptive and co-genetic intrusive products between basalt and trachyte, and between gabbro and syenite respectively.

Rock compositions display mildly alkaline affinities ranging from picritic basalt, olivine alkali basalt, and hawaiite, to trachyte.

Intermediate mugearite and benmoreite ( 50 – 60 wt. % SiO2 ) are not exposed or absent.

Equivalent plutonic diorite, monzodiorite, and monzonite ( 45 – 65 wt. % SiO2 ) are also absent.

Previously, the formation of the more evolved trachyte and syenite has been ascribed to ‘crustal melting’, however our analysis of new major data and trace element data from bulk-rocks and minerals – of this hy-normative intraplate alkalic suite – provide evidence based on crystal fractionation and punctuated melt extraction for an alternative model.

In bulk rocks observed major and trace element fractionation trends can be reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) at oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

The results of our MELTS models are in agreement with experimental studies, and indicate a fractionation generated compositional gap where trachytic liquid ( 62 – 64 wt. % SiO2 ) has been extracted after the melt has reached a crystallinity of 65% – 70 %.

The fractionated assemblage, of:

– clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – plagioclase; – magnetite; and, – apatite.

All [ of the aforementioned ] are left in a mafic cumulate residue ( 44 – 46 wt. % SiO2 ).

Calculated values of specific trace and minor elements ( Sr [ Strontium ], Cr [ Chromium ], P [ Phosphorus ] ) from a theoretical cumulate are consistent with measured concentrations from cumulate xenoliths. ‘ Compositional trends from individual mineral analysis are also supportive of fractional crystallization, but illustrate a disrupted ‘liquid line of decent for each mineral phase.

Olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions progressively decrease in Mg [ Magnesium ] concentration ( Fo83-42 ) in basaltic [ magma ] melts and shows high Fe [ Iron ] concentration in trachytic melts ( Fo5-10 ).

Clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] analyses also displays higher Fe [ Iron ] / Mg [ Magnesium ] ratios in more evolved rocks.

Ternary feldspar [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions shift from plagioclase ( An84-56 ) in basalt to alkali feldspar ( Or8-65Ab53-33An39-2 ) [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] in trachyte, but also lack the intermediate compositions.

On the other hand, analysis of mafic cumulate xenoliths reflect more evolved mineral compositions – towards the rim than volcanic equivalents – and complete observed fractionation trends.

In summary, our results indicate that these compositional gaps formed from punctuated melt extraction within an optimal crystal fraction window ( 60% – 70 % crystallinity ).

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V52B..02H

– – – –

F.

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect ]

Publication Date: October 1996

Title: The Aurora volcanic field, California-Nevada: oxygen fugacity constraints on the development of andesitic magma

Authors: Lange, R. A.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

Affiliation:

AA ( Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ); AB ( Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ).

Publication: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Volume 125, Issue 2/3, pp. 167-185 (1996). (CoMP Homepage)   Origin: SPRINGER

DOI: 10.1007/s004100050214

Bibliographic Code: 1996CoMP..125..167L

Abstract

The Aurora volcanic field, located along the northeastern margin of Mono Lake in the Western Great Basin, has erupted a diverse suite of high-K and shoshonitic lava types, with 48 to 76 wt. % SiO2, over the last 3,600,000 million years.

There is no correlation between the age and composition of the lavas.

Three-quarters of the volcanic field consists of evolved ( < 4 wt. % MgO ) basaltic andesite and andesite lava cones and flows, the majority of which contain sparse, euhedral phenocrysts that are normally zoned; there is no evidence of mixed, hybrid magmas.

The average eruption rate over this time period was ˜200 m3/km2/year, which is typical of continental arcs and an order of magnitude lower than that for the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

All of the Aurora lavas display a trace-element signature common to subduction-related magmas, as exemplified by Ba [ Barium ] / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios between 52 and 151.

Pre-eruptive water contents ranged from 1.5 wt. % in plagioclase – rich two-pyroxene andesites to ˜6 wt. % in a single hornblende lamprophyre and several biotite-hornblende andesites.

Calculated oxygen fugacities fall within 0.4 and + 2.4 log units of the Ni-NiO [ Nickel and Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

The Aurora potassic suite, follows a classic calc-alkaline trend in a plot of FeOT / MgO vs. SiO2 and displays linear decreasing trends in FeOT and TiO2 with SiO2 content, suggesting a prominent role for Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides during differentiation.

However, development of the calc-alkaline trend – through fractional crystallization of titanomagnetite – would have caused the residual liquid to become so depleted in ferric iron that its oxygen fugacity would have fallen several log units below that of the Ni [ Nickel ] – NiO [ Nickel – Oxygen ] buffer.

Nor can fractionation of hornblende be invoked, since it has the same effect – as titanomagnetite – in depleting the residual liquid in ferric iron, together with a thermal stability limit that is lower than the eruption temperatures of several andesites ( ˜1040 1080°C ; derived from two-pyroxene thermometry ).

Unless some progressive oxidation process occurs, fractionation of titanomagnetite – or hornblende – cannot explain a calc-alkaline trend in which all erupted lavas have oxygen fugacites ≥ the Ni-NiO [ Nickel – Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

In contrast to fractional crystallization, closed system equilibrium crystallization will produce residual liquids with an oxygen fugacity that is similar to that of the initial melt.

However, the eruption of nearly aphryic lavas argues against tapping from a magma chamber during equilibrium crystallization, a process that requires crystals to remain in contact with the liquid.

A preferred model involves the accumulation of basaltic magmas at the mantle crust interface, which solidify and are later remelted during repeated intrusion of basalt.

As an end – member case, closed – system equilibrium crystallization of a basalt, followed by equilibrium partial melting of the gabbro will produce a calc-alkaline evolved liquid ( namely, high SiO2 [ Silicon-Oxygen / Oxide ] and low FeOT / MgO ) with a relative f O 2 ( corrected for the effect of changing temperature ) that is similar to that of the initial basalt.

Differentiation of the Aurora magmas by repeated partial melting of previous underplates in the lower crust, rather than by crystal fractionation in large stable magma chambers, is consistent with the low eruption rate at the Aurora volcanic field.

Reference

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996CoMP..125..167L

– – – –

While the aforementioned information material concludes the introductory portion of Part 1 in this preliminary report, more easily understood materialize is intended to be documented in Part 2 through Part 5 ( previewed below ):

Part 2, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 ), is intended to focus on new ‘methods of capturing’ natural essence High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 3, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘discoveries of properties’ from captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 4, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘applied theories’ of natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ); and,

Part 5, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘transports’ having captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ).

 

Submitted for review and commentary by,

 

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

/

/

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Quantum Crypto Keys

Quantum Cryptographic Control screen QCrypt QKey

[ IMAGE ( above ): Quantum Cryptographic Control QCrypt QKey Display Screen. Click on image to enlarge. ]

Quantum Crypto Keys
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

November 19, 2011 11:34:08 ( PST ) Update ( Published: November 4, 2010 )

USA, Virginia, Tysons Corner – November 19, 2011 – What business continually builds its inventory, no matter what happens anywhere in the world, and never stops building it?

While some may fear big brother, others are financially profiting from carefully researching otherwise unknown private sector business investment portfolios strategically partnered with government intelligence agencies.

Quantum Cryptography –

Expect quantum cryptography to become known in the future as the first practical application for “Quantum Communications.”

Quantum cryptography is a form of cryptography exploiting quantum theory, in-particular with uncertainty principle stating it is impossible to measure all aspects of an object with absolute certainty.

Background –

Im 1984, Charles H. Bennett ( fellow at IBM THOMAS J. WATSON RESEARCH CENTER ) and Gilles Brassard ( researcher at the University of Montreal, Canada ) first devised quantum cryptography as part of their study of relationships between physics and information.

They were not searching for a new cryptographic method but applying basic principles of quantum mechanics to real world uses and discovered quantum mechanics ideally suited for cryptography because of photons one-wayness. [49.]

In 1989, Charles H. Bennett and IBM colleagues built the first working quantum cryptographic prototypes sending photons a distance of 30 centimeters through the air of a laboratory.

Many authorities predicted at least 25-years would pass before any form of quantum cryptography would have practical utility, however at least three ( 3 ) manufacturers now have ‘quantum cryptography products on the market’ and developing more technology such as ‘range’ plus more in the future.

Some of the latest cryptologic technologies are still subject to continuing scientific investigation or are already in research and development stages, although early commercial products exist where standards are under development for some new technologies.

In the increasingly competitive Information Age – where the Internet spreads knowledge rapidly – protecting U.S. next-generation weapon systems, empirical SE&I, M&S applications, and intellectual property sees technical data became critical.

Cryptologic scientific investigations and developing technologies are closely related to those in the area of information technology ( IT ) because information security modules, components, and systems must be tightly integrated with – if not an integral component or module of – basic information processing hardware and software architecture where many applications now incorporate high-performance features and metaprocessing techniques shortening cryptanalytic time required for an exhaustive key search.

– –

Zero-Knowledge Proofs ( ZNP ) –

Zero-knowledge proofs ( ZNP ) are methods for proving knowledge of a secret without revealing any information about the secret.

Technology Parameter(s)

1. Prove knowledge of a secret without revealing any knowledge of the secret; 92

2. Prove identification;

3. Provide verification;

4. Reproducible results that significantly enhance or degrade current U.S. military zero-knowledge proof schemes; and,

5. Significantly enhance or degraded existing cryptographic capabilities for U.S. government ( USG ) Class A and Class B cryptographic systems.

Critical Materials: None identified.

Unique Test, Production, Inspection Equipment: None identified.

Unique Software

ZNP models.

Major Commercial Applications –

ZNP characteristic of anonymity is an important part of some concepts for e-commerce transactions.

For example, proof of certain generic authority or credit ‘credentials’ might be provided for e-commerce without revealing identity by using ZNP systems.

E-commerce transactions that protect privacy.

Like all requirements for security on the Internet, the threats from independent hackers and from nation states, rogue states, terrorists, and international criminals drive this technology.

Affordability Issues: Not an issue at this time.

Background –

ZNP allows a prover to demonstrate knowledge ( of a secret ) while revealing no information ( whatsoever of use to the verifier ) in conveying this demonstration of knowledge beyond what the verifier was able to deduce before the protocol run.

Only a single bit of information has to be conveyed, namely:

That the prover actually does know the secret.

ZNP protocols provide trusted authentication mechanisms and anonymity.

For example, one could prove U.S. citizenship without providing any other specific information such as name, address, sex, or exact age.

A protocol that is a proof of knowledge has the zero-knowledge property if it can be simulated in the following sense:

There exists an expected polynomial-time algorithm ( simulator ) which can produce – upon input of the assertion(s) to be proven but without interacting with the real prover – transcripts indistinguishable from those resulting from interaction with the real prover.

The zero-knowledge property implies that a prover – executing the protocol, even when interacting with a malicious verifier – does not release any information about its ( prover’s ) secret knowledge other than the particular assertion itself is true, not otherwise computable in polynomial time from public information alone.

Thus, participation does not increase the chances of subsequent impersonation.

A protocol is computationally zero-knowledge if an observer – restricted to probabilistic polynomial time tests – cannot distinguish real from simulated transcripts.

For perfect zero-knowledge, the probability distributions ( of the transcripts ) must be identical.

Zero-knowledge means computational zero-knowledge, when not qualified by further convention.

In the case of computational zero-knowledge, real and simulated transcripts are said to be polynomially indistinguishable ( indistinguishable using polynomial-time algorithms ).

Any information extracted by a verifier – through interaction with a prover – provides no advantage to the verifier within polynomial time.

Interesting work has been done in statistical zero-knowledge work performed by Jan Camenisch and Markus Michels exemplifying ‘statistical zero-knowledge protocols to prove statements’ saw these three ( 3 ) protocols:

– A committed number is a prime;

– A committed ( or revealed ) number is the product of two ( 2 ) safe primes, i.e. primes p and q such that (p-1)/2 and (q-1)/2 are prime; and,

– A given integer has large multiplicative order modulo, a composite number consisting of two ( 2 ) safe prime factors.

Main building blocks of aforementioned protocols are statistical zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge that are of independent interest where there has been proof of the correct computation of a modular addition, a modular multiplication, and a modular exponentiation whereby all values – including the modulus – are committed-to but not publicly known. Apart from the validity of the equations, no other information about the modulus ( e.g., a generator whose order equals the modulus ) or any other operand is exposed.

These techniques can be generalized to prove that any multi-variate modular polynomial equation is satisfied where only commitments to the variables of the polynomial – and to the modulus – need be known. Thus improving previous results where the modulus is publicly known.

– –

Digital Data Steganography –

Steganography is that branch of cryptology that attempts to obscure the existence of data through the use of subliminal channels.

Cleartext or encrypted information can be randomly embedded in the quantization noise of ‘digital images’ or other ‘imprecise digital data files, without noticeably increasing the size of the host file.

Background –

Image steganography can be used to conceal an encrypted message.

Technique by ‘combining image steganography and encryption or multiple-encryption could present a challenge to National Security and law enforcement agency cryptanalysts whereby ‘even if a message were known to exist in an electronic image’, the ‘message bits’ would have to be ‘identified’ and ‘isolated’ in cryptanalysis processing that could make ‘plain text recovery incredibly time consuming’ – if not ‘impracticable’. Steganography, in various forms, are ‘not strictly digital image steganography’.

Banks make use of a code-word execution technique when they need to send highly secure “action” messages to execute preplanned actions. Predetermined and mutually agreed actions are then set in motion, with instructions implicit in one short phrase embedded in routine banking message traffic.

Key critical to profiting from private intelligence investments in private sector arenas is to aquire even better predictives than what intelligence agencies currently understand future necessities will be.

Predictives, in brief formats presented to government directorates, are typically derived from a broad ‘studies and analysis collective’.

Predictives are rarely derived from only one ( 1 ) individual – save for leadership occassional fortune tellers – because few fluidly exercise simultaneous abilities quickly, i.e. identifying target specific information, limitedly broadening core targets outward to key multiple arenas requiring in-depth research and then analyzing all combinatorically with trend based progressive direction. Finding someone who can do all this, albeit step-by-step, could possibly benefit some leadership while even wiser leadership might add ‘socio-economic analysis’ in that mix to more effectively buffet any social unrest outcomes.

While considering one ( 1 ) individual doing it all, the word ‘impossible’ may initially come to mind, however that may not necessarily be true. Even ‘without mind reading’ or Mensa abilities, one ( 1 ) key to sucessfully profiting from investing in private sector businesses – tied to emerging government intelligence agency venture capital investments – may only require special skill sets in researching and analyzing what already slipped past intelligence information technology ( IT ) software protocols or think-tank collectives that would have otherwise already hammered-out an intelligence business investment shelf-ready decision awaiting a key trigger for implementation.

The first and easiest task to perform is becoming knowledgeable in historical intelligence business investments and where new knowledge will precisely profit in the not too distant future – thereby beating lumbering bears, busy bees and pesky flies – to ‘their honey’.

Profiting from those inept is not unlawful – at least not ‘yet’ – and so long as the insatiable sweet tooth of bears and bees can have the ‘majority of their honey’ they ‘might not mind sharing a little new honey’ shown them. Then again, ‘maybe not’.

For some, what is involved may only be tantamount to collecting a finder’s fee for doing some treasure hunting, however one must know how and where to look for some ‘old technology’ lost in yesterday’s bureaucratic confusion.

To place a bet, on a private business or the stock market, one needs to research more carefully than others – never underestimating machine-to-machine communications ( M2M ) either.

The following initial report ( below ) is only but a related research exercise that may prepare financial freedom futures.

– – – –

Circa: 2002 – 2008

IN-Q-TEL INCORPORATED (aka) IN-Q-IT CORPORATION 2500 Sand Hill Road – Suite 113 Menlo Park, California 94025 – 7061 USA TEL: +1 (650) 234-8999 TEL: +1 (650) 234-8983 FAX: +1 (650) 234-8997 WWW: http://www.inqtel.com WWW: http://www.in-q-tel.org WWW: http://www.in-q-tel.com

IN-Q-TEL INCORPORATED (aka) IN-Q-IT CORPORATION P.O. Box 12407 Arlington, Virginia 22219 USA TEL: +1 (703) 248-3000 FAX: +1 (703) 248-3001

– –

IN-Q-TEL focus areas, surround:

– Physical Technologies; – Biological Technologies; – Security; and, – Software Infrastructure.

– –

IN-Q-TEL

Investments –

Strategic Investments, Targeted Returns

In-Q-Tel is ‘building’ a ‘portfolio of companies’ that are ‘developing innovative solutions’ in ‘key technology areas’

Similar to many ‘corporate strategic venture’ firms, In-Q-Tel seeks to ‘optimize potential returns’ for our clients — the CIA and the broader Intelligence Community— by investing in companies of strategic interest.

In-Q-Tel engages ‘start-ups’, ‘emerging’ and ‘established’ companies, universities and research labs.

In-Q-Tel structure attractive win-win relationships through ‘equity investments’, as well ‘strategic product development funding’, and ‘innovative intellectual property arrangements’ and ‘government business development guidance’.

An Enterprising Partner –

In-Q-Tel ‘portfolio companies’ value a ‘strategic relationship’ with a ‘proactive partner’.

Companies, that work through In-Q-Tel due diligence process, know their technologies have the potential to address the needs of one of the most discriminating enterprise customers in the world.

In-Q-Tel takes a hands-on approach, working closely with our ‘portfolio companies’ to help ‘drive their success’ in the ‘marketplace’ and to ‘mature [ ‘grow’ ] their technologies’.

In-Q-Tel ‘investment goals’ are focused on ‘return’ on technology – a ‘blend of factors’ that will ‘deliver strategic impact’ on the Agency [ CIA ] mission:

– Effective ‘deployments’ of innovative technologies to the CIA; – Commercially successful ‘companies that can continue’ to ‘deliver’ and ‘support’ innovate technologies; and, – Financial ‘returns to fund further technology investments’ to ‘benefit the Intelligence Community’.   Investing In Our National Security –

In just a few short years, In-Q-Tel has ‘evaluated’ nearly two thousand [ 2,000 ] ‘proposals’:

75% [ 1,500 ] of which have come from companies that had never previously considered working with the government.

To date, In-Q-Tel ‘established strategic relationships’ with more than ‘twenty’ ( 20 ) of these ‘companies’.

Read more about our ‘portfolio companies’ and ‘technology partners’, or learn how to submit a business plan to In-Q-Tel.

Areas Of Focus –

IN-Q-TEL focuses on next generation technologies for gathering, analyzing, managing and disseminating data. Learn more about our areas of focus:

Knowledge Management: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/km.html ];

Security and Privacy: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/sp.html ];

Search and Discovery: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/sd.html ];

Distributed Data Collection: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/dd.html ]; and,

Geospatial Information Services: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/gi.html ].

Submit A Business Plan –

“In-Q-Tel also has garnered a reputation in the tech and VC [ Venture Capital ] worlds for being hard-nosed during due diligence. Unlike some venture firms, In-Q-Tel is staffed with hard-core techies who know how to put a program through the ringer. They’ve also got one of the roughest testing domains: the computer systems of the CIA.” – Washington Business Journal ( November 19, 2001 )

– View our criteria [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/submit/index.html ] for submission, and apply for consideration online.

Media Resources –

– Investment Portfolio: [ http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/news/attachments/InQTelInvestmentPortfolio.pdf ].

Reference

http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/www.inqtel.com/invest/index.html

– – – –

Circa: 2002

IN-Q-TEL

Investments –

Technology Partners ( 2002 ) –

INKTOMI [ http://www.inktomi.com ] ( Leading Edge Search and Retrieval Technology )

INKTOMI, based in Foster City, California ( USA ), has offices elsewhere in North America, Asia and Europe.

INKTOMI division business, involves:

Network Products – comprised of industry leading solutions for network caching, content distribution, media broadcasting, and wireless technologies; and,

Search Solutions – comprised of general Web search and related services, and ‘enterprise’ search.

Inktomi ‘develops’ and ‘markets’ network infrastructure software essential for ‘service providers’ and ‘global enterprises’.

Inktomi ‘customer’ and ‘strategic partner’ base of leading companies, include:

MERRILL LYNCH; INTEL: AT&T; MICROSOFT; SUN MICROSYSTEMS; HEWLETT-PACKARD; COMPAQ; DELL; NOKIA; AMERICA ONLINE ( AOL ); and, YAHOO.

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) Lead System Integrator ( LSI ) – SAIC LSI [ http://www.saic.com/contractcenter/ites-2s/clients.html  ]

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ), founded in 1969 by Dr. J. R. Beyster who remained with SAIC for 30-years until at least November 3, 2003, has had as part of its management, and on its Board of Directors, many well known former U.S. government personnel, including:

– Melvin Laird, Secretary of Defense in the Richard Milhouse Nixon Presidential Administration;

– William Perry, Secretary of Defense in the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Administration;

– John M. Deutch, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) Director of Central Intelligence ( DCI ) in the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Administration;

– U.S. Navy Admiral Bobby Ray Inman, U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) and U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) – various employed capacities in ‘both’ Agencies – in the Gerald Ford Presidential Administration, Billy Carter Presidential Administration and Ronald Reagan Presidential Administration;

– David Kay, who led the search for Weapons of Mass Destruction ( WMD ) – following the 1991 U.S. Persian Gulf War – for the United Nations ( UN ) and in the George W. Bush Sr. Presidential Administration following the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.

In 2009, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) moved corporate headquarters to Tysons Corner at 1710 SAIC Drive, McLean, Virginia ( USA ).

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) is a scientific, engineering and technology ‘applications company’ with numerous ‘state government clients’, ‘federal government clients’, and ‘private sector clients’.

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) works extensively, with:

U.S. Department of Defense ( DOD ); U.S. Department of Homeland Security ( DHS ); U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ); U.S. intelligence community ( others ); U.S. government civil agencies; and, Selected commercial markets.

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) Subsidiaries –

SAIC VENTURE CAPITAL CORPORATION; SCICOM TECHNOLOGIES NOIDA ( INDIA ); BD SYSTEMS ( BDS ); BECHTEL SAIC COMPANY LLC; BECK DISASTER RECOVERY ( BDR ); R.W. BECK; BENHAM; CLOUDSHIELD; DANET; EAGAN MCALLISTER ASSOCIATES INC.; HICKS & ASSOCIATES MEDPROTECT LLC REVEAL; SAIC-FREDERICK INC.; NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE ( NCI ); SAIC INTERNATIONAL SUBSIDIARIES; SAIC LIMITED ( UK ); CALANAIS ( SCOTLAND ); VAREC; APPLIED MARINE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION; EAI CORPORATION; and, Others.

In 1991, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) received transference of the U.S. Department of Defense ( DOJ ), U.S. Army ( USA ), Defense Intelligence Agency ( DIA ) ‘Remote Viewing Program’ renamed STARGATE Project.

In January 1999, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) consultant Steven Hatfill saw SAIC vice president Joseph Soukup internally ( with no outside client ) commission ( with no outside client ) William C. Patrick – a retired leading figure in the legacy U.S. bioweapons program – see a report produced ( 28-pages on Feburary 1999 ) on terrorist anthrax attack possibilities via Unitd States postal mailings prior to 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States.

In March 2001, the U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) had SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) in ‘concept definition’ phase for what later became known as the NSA TRAILBLAZER Project, a “Digital Network Intelligence” system intended to ‘analyze data’ carried across computer ‘networks’.

In 2002, the U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) chose SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) to produce a ‘technology demonstration platform’ for the NSA TRAILBLAZER Project, a contract worth $280,000,000 million ( USD ).

TRAILBLAZER Project participants, included:

BOEING; COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION ( CSC ); and, BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON.

In 2005, TRAILBLAZER – believed by speculators ( http://www.PhysOrg.Com et. al. ) to be a continuation of an earlier data mining project THINTHREAD program – saw U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) Director Michael Hayden inform a U.S. Senate hearing that the TRAILBLAZER program required several hundred million dollars over budget – consequently trailing years behind schedule waiting for approvals.

From 2001 through 2005, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) was primary contractor for the $600,000,000 million ( USD ) TRILOGY Program, a three ( 3 ) part program – intended to replace obsolete FBI computers with a then-new state-of-the-art cutting edge technology ‘secure high-speed computer network system’ that would install 500 computer network servers, 1600 scanners and thousands of desktop computers in FBI field offices – that on December 2003 delivered to the U.S. Department of Justice ( DOJ ) Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) its SAIC “Virtual Case File” ( VCF ), a $170,000,000 million ( USD ) software system designed to speed tracking of terrorists, better accurize communications amongst agents fighting criminals with this FBI ‘critical case management system’, however nineteen ( 19 ) different government managers involved 36 contract modifications averaging 1.3 FBI changes everyday totaling 399 changes during 15-months afterwhich the FBI continued arguing ( through its own intermediary, AEROSPACE CORPORATION ) changes until the U.S. Department of Justice ( DOJ ) Inspector General ( IG ) criticized its ‘FBI handling’ of SAIC software, whereon February 2005 SAIC ‘recommended’ the FBI at-least ‘begin using’ the SAIC TRILOGY VCF ‘case management system’.

On September 27, 2006 during a special meeting of SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) stockholders, employee-owners voted by a margin of 86% to proceed with the initial public offering ( IPO ) whereupon completion SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) also paid – to existing stockholders – a ‘special dividend’ of $1,600,000,000 billion to $2,400,000,000 billion ( USD ).

On October 17, 2006 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) conducted an initial public offering ( IPO ) of common stock offering of 86,250,000 shares priced at $15.00 per share. Underwriters – BEAR STEARNS and MORGAN STANLEY – exercised over-allotment options resulting in 11,025,000 million shares seeing the IPO raise $1,245,000,000 billion ( USD ).

SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) had approximately 46,000 total employees, 16,000 employees were in McLean, Virginia ( USA ) and another 5,000 employees were in San Diego, California ( USA ).

SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. ( SRA ) [ http://www.sra.com/about-us/profile.php ]

SRA INTERNATIONAL INC., founded in 1978, headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia has additional U.S. offices.

SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. is a leading provider of information technology services and solutions to clients in national security, health care and public health, and civil government markets, requiring:

– Strategic Consulting; – Systems Design, Development, and Integration; – OutSourcing; and, – Operations Management.

SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. also delivers business solutions, for:

– Text mining; – Data mining; – Disaster and Contingency Response Planning; – Information Sssurance; – Environmental Strategies – Environmental Technology; – Enterprise Systems Management; and, – Wireless Integration.

SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. ORIONMagic ®

– –

Circa: 2002

IN-Q-TEL

Investments –

Portfolio Of Companies ( 2002 ) – Partial List

ARCSIGHT [ http://www.arcsight.com ] ( Security Management Software for The Enterprise )

ArcSight, founded in May 2000, is located in the heart of Silicon Valley, California ( USA ).

ArcSight is a leading supplier of enterprise software that provides the security “air traffic control system” for large, geographically dispersed organizations. These organizations are augmenting their network infrastructure with a wide variety of security devices such as firewalls, intrusion detection and identity management systems that produce a barrage of uncoordinated alarms and alerts that overwhelm the security staff.

With its ‘centralized view’ of ‘all security activity’ combined with ‘real time analysis’ of ‘events’, by both ‘operating at the perimeter and inside’ the organization, ArcSight provides a ‘single solution’, for:

Event capture; Log aggregation; Real time correlation; Incident investigation; and, Reporting.

ArcSight ‘separates’, the ‘true threats and attacks’ from the ‘millions of false alarms and non-threatening activities’ that occur each day, focusing attention and resources on high-priority problems.

The company has delivered enterprise, ‘security management solutions’ to leading ‘financial services’, ‘government’ and ‘manufacturing’ organizations while ‘attracting capital’ from ‘leading investors’, such as:

IN-Q-TEL; KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB ); and, SUMITOMO CORPORATION.

ATTENSITY CORPORATION [ http://www.attensity.com ] ( Text Extraction for Threat Detection )

Attensity Corp., founded in 2000, is a privately held company with dual headquarters in Mountain View, California ( USA ) and Salt Lake City, Utah ( USA ).

Attensity Corp. provides enterprise, ‘analytic software’ and ‘services’, to:

Government agencies; and,

Fortune 500 companies.

Attensity has developed breakthrough text extraction technology that transforms information captured in free form text into structured, relational data.

Attensity enables government agencies to dramatically expand their analytical capabilities in the area of ‘threat detection’ by, powering:

Link analysis; Trending; Exception reporting; Other advanced analytics; and, Knowledge management applications.

Attensity technology is the culmination of nearly a decade [ 10-years ] of research in computational linguistics.

Attensity Corporation customers include:

IN-Q-TEL, a strategic venture group funded by the CIA; WHIRLPOOL; and, JOHN DEERE.

ATTENSITY CORPORATION investor, is:

IN-Q-TEL

BROWSE3D [ http://www.browse3d.com ] ( Advanced Web Navigation )

BROWSE3D, founded in 2000, is located in the Dulles Technology Corridor of northern Virgina.

The company’s first Knowledge Management product, the Browse3D Browser, enables Internet users to browse Web sites using a dynamic, interactive, 3 dimensional ( 3-D ) display environment.

One year later [ 2001 ] the Browse3D Browser was recognized as the Best Internet Software of 2001 at the COMDEX Fall Technology Show ( Las Vegas, Nevada, USA ).

Browse3D launched its ‘consumer product’ in January 2002.

For the past 2-years [ since 2000 ], Browse3D has been working to re-invent the online researcher’s tool set. A researcher’s ability to ‘harvest relevant online data’ is often limited by the tools available to view that data.

Future products and technologies promise additional improvements in the way users ‘find’, ‘organize’, ‘save’ and ‘exchange’ web-based ‘content’.

BROWSE3D early-stage venture funding provided, by:

IN-Q-TEL; and, angel investors.

CANDERA INC. [ http://www.candera.com ] ( Enterprise Storage )

Candera Incorporated, founded in 2000, is a development stage stealth mode company headquartered in Milpitas, California ( USA ).

Candera Inc. is developing a new generation, purpose built, network based storage management platform that gives businesses unprecedented ‘control over’ and ‘visibility into’ their networked storage environments.

With the Candera Confluence solution, businesses can dramatically improve the utilization of their existing heterogeneous storage assets by consolidating them into a centrally managed storage pool. These can then be quickly and dynamically allocated to meet the needs of current and future network based applications, giving large enterprises a strategic advantage.

Candera is building the first [ 1st ] system, of a new generation of systems, that will enable customers to unleash the ultimate value of networked information storage.

CONVERA [ http://www.convera.com ] ( Mission Critical Enterprise Search and Categorization Software )

Convera RetrievalWare is a high-performance intelligent search system that allows broad flexibility and scalability for implementation across corporate intranets and extranets, enabling users to index and search a wide range of distributed information resources, including text files, HTML, XML, over 200 proprietary document formats, relational database tables, document management systems and groupware repositories. Convera RetrievalWare excels in distributed client environments and server environments with hundreds or thousands of users, documents, images and / or multiple media assets.

Advanced search capabilities include concept and keyword searching, pattern searching and query by example.

Convera is a leading provider of enterprise mission-critical ‘search’, ‘retrieval’ and ‘categorizing’ solutions.

More than 800 customers – in 33 countries – rely on Convera search solutions to power a broad range of mission critical applications, including enterprise:

Portals; Knowledge management; Intelligence gathering; Profiling; Corporate policy compliance; Regulatory compliance; Customer service; and, More.

DECRU [ http://www.decru.com ] ( Secure Networked Storage )

Decru, founded in April 2001, is headquartered in Redwood City, California ( USA ).

Decru solves the problem of secure data storage with a robust, wire-speed encryption appliance that fits transparently into any SAN or NAS storage environment, protecting data from both internal and external threats.

Markets include essentially any organization with a need to protect proprietary or confidential information ( e.g. government, technology, financial services, health care ).

Investors, include:

IN-Q-TEL; NEA; GREYLOCK; and, BENCHMARK.

GRAVITRON [ http://www.graviton.com ] ( Early Warning Detection and Notification System for Homeland Security Over Wireless Mesh Networks )

GRAVITON, founded in 1999, is located in La Jolla, California, USA.

Solomon Trujillo, former head of U.S. WEST ( baby bell telephone company ), leads GRAVITRON.

GRAVITON is on leading edge of a fledgling ( small ) industry, known as:

Machine to Machine Communications ( M2M ).

GRAVITON is developing an advanced integrated wireless sensor platform uniquely optimized for large-scale distributed sensor network applications working with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems ( MEMS ) sensor and spread spectrum wireless technologies licensed exclusively to GRAVITON from the U.S. National Laboratory at Oakridge ( also known as ) Oakridge National Laboratory ( Tennessee, USA ) – managed by the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ).

GRAVITON products and solutions integrate wireless, sensor and data management technology enabling enterprises to efficiently and transparently monitor, control, send, receive, and update system information from devices anywhere in the world.

GRAVITON is supported and funded by a number of corporate partners and investors, including:

IN-Q-TEL; GLOBAL CROSSING; ROYAL DUTCH SHELL ( oil / petroleum ); MITSUI; SIEMENS; QUALCOM; OMRON; MOTOROLA; and, SUN MICROSYSTEMS.

GRAVITON ‘primary’ financial investors, include:

MERRILL LYNCH;

GRAVITON ‘venture capital’ firms, include:

KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB ); and, EARLYBIRD.

INTELLISEEK [ http://www.intelliseek.com ] ( Enterprise Intelligence Solutions )

INTELLISEEK, founded in 1997, has since 1998 been changing the way organizations ‘understand’, ‘gather’ and ‘use’ enterprise ‘intelligence’.

INTELLISEEK ‘knowledge discovery tools’ [ as of: 2002 ] enable the nation’s largest enterprises with up-to-the-minute consumer, industry information and ‘competitive intelligence’.

INTELLISEEK ‘Enterprise Search Server’™ ( ESS ) search platform provides a suite of intelligent applications that automate ‘knowledge discovery’ and ‘knowledge aggregation’ from hundreds of disparate, and often hard-to-locate data sources.

INTELLISEEK ‘Knowledge Management’ and ‘Search and Discovery’ solutions solve the fundamental problem of “information overload” by identifying and searching relevant, targeted and personalized content from the internet, intranets and extranets.

INTELLISEEK clients, include:

FORD MOTOR COMPANY ( FOMOCO ); NOKIA; and, PROCTOR AND GAMBLE.

Investors include:

IN-Q-TEL; FORD VENTURES; RIVER CITIES CAPITAL; GENERAL ATLANTIC PARTNERS LLC; FLAT IRON PARTNERS; BLUE CHIP VENTURE COMPANY; NOKIA VENTURES; and, Other private investors.

METACARTA [ http://www.metacarta.com ] ( Geospatial Data Fusion )

MetaCarta, established in 1999, was launched on more than $1,000,000 million in funding from the U.S. Department Of Defense ( DOD ) Defense Advanced Projects Agency ( DARPA ) and private investors.

MetaCarta CEO John Frank, with a doctorate from the Massachusets Institute Of Technology ( MIT ) where during 1999 – as a Hertz Fellow in physics working on a PhD – conceived a new way to view – geographically – ‘collections of text’ that later saw MetaCarta combine his interests in algorithms, information design, and scientific models of real world phenomena.

Metacarta provides a new knowledge management platform that integrates ‘text data with geography’ providing a ‘cohesive system’ for ‘problem solving’.

METACARTA Geographic Text Search ( GTS ) appliance, the software solution, redefines how people interact with information, enabling analysts to view text reports and geographic information in one ( 1 ) logical view through integration of text and geography delivering new information not obtainable from any other source.

MetaCarta CEO John Frank graduated from Yale University.

MOHOMINE [ http://www.mohomine.com ] ( Transforming Unstructured Multi-Language Data Into Actionable Information )

MOHOMINE, founded in 1999, is privately-held and located in San Diego, California, USA.

MOHOMINE technology has been deployed by United States national security organizations.

MOHOMINE mohoClassifier for National Security Organizations ™ reviews ‘text information’ in ‘cables’, ‘e-mails’, ‘system files’, ‘intranets’, ‘extranets’ and ‘internet’ providing ‘automated document classification’, ‘routing’ – based upon ‘learn-by-example pattern recognition’ technology – and ‘reports’ on user defined properties such as ‘topic’, ‘subject’, ‘tone’ ( ‘urgent’, plus others ), ‘author’, ‘source’ ( geographic locations, ‘country’, etc. ), and more.

MOHOMINE mohoClassifier users can easily set up ‘filters’ to automatically ‘identify’ and ‘prioritize’ ( ‘read first’ requirement ) documents that are quickly processed – out-of large volumes of other data – and then quickly route prioritized information to quickly reach the proper people.

MOHOMINE, from Global 5000, currently [ since 2002 ] has more than one hundred fifty ( 150 ) customers across numerous vertical industries, including:

CITICORP; WELLS FARGO; INTEL; TEXAS INSTRUMENTS; PFIZER; BOEING; ORACLE; PEOPLESOFT; and, NIKE.

MOHOMINE investors, include:

IN-Q-TEL; HAMILTON APEX TECHNOLOGY VENTURES; and, WINDWARD VENTURES.

QYNERGY CORPORATION [ http://www.qynergy.com ] ( Long-Lasting Power Solutions For Multiple Applications And Small-Tech )

QYNERGY CORP., founded in 2001, is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

QYNERGY technology originated at the U.S. National Laboratory at Sandia ( also known as ) Sandia National Laboratories ( New Mexico, USA ) and at the University of New Mexico ( New Mexico, USA ).

QYNERGY Corp. develops leading-edge energy solutions based on QYNERGY proprietary QynCell ™ technology that made an exciting breakthrough – over other ‘battery’ or ‘portable energy’ devices – in ‘materials science’ allowing QYNERGY to possess several unique competitive advantages.

QYNERGY QynCell ™ is an ‘electrical energy device’ revolution, providing:

Long-lived Batteries – QynCell usable life is potentially over a period of ‘several decades’ ( 10-year multiples ), during which time the QynCell device ‘does not require external charging’;

Miniature and Micro Applications – QynCell™ technology is scaleable, thus can be ‘miniaturized’, for:

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems ( MEMS ); MicroPower™ applications; Small microelectronics; and, Power-on-a-chip applications.

SAFEWEB [ http://www.safewebinc.com ] ( Secure Remote Access )

SAFEWEB, established in April 2000, is based in Emeryville, California, USA.

SAFEWEB built the world’s largest ‘online privacy network’, however in 2001 its ‘free online service’ was ‘concluded’ – to focus on developing its ‘enterprise’ product.

SAFEWEB is a leading provider of innovative security and privacy technologies that are effective, economical and simple.

SAFEWEB Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ), the first [ 1st ] SAFEWEB enterprise security release – reduces the cost and complexity traditionally involved in securing corporate network resources.

SAFEWEB Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ), named Tsunami, is a fundamental ‘redesign of extranet architecture’ integrating disparate technologies into a ‘modular plug-in network appliance’ ( SEA Tsunami).

SAFEWEB SEA Tsunami is an ‘all-in-one solution’ simplifying implementation of ‘extranets’ and ‘Virtual Private Networks’ ( VPN ) reducing Total Cost of Ownership ( TCO ) by innovative architecture letting companies build – in less than 1-hour – ‘secure extranets’ providing ‘remote stationed’ enablement of ‘employees’, ‘clients’ and ‘partners’ to access ‘internal applications’ and ‘secure data’ from anywhere using a standard internet website browser.

SAFEWEB delivers, through established strategic partnerships, customized versions of its Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ) Tsunami technology to U.S. intelligence [ CIA, etc. ] and communications agencies [ NSA, etc. ].

SAFEWEB investors, include:

IN-Q-TEL; CHILTON INVESTMENTS; and, KINGDON CAPITAL.

STRATIFY INCORPORATED [  ] ( Unstructured Data Management Software )

In 1999, PURPLE YOGI was founded by former INTEL Microcomputer Research Laboratory scientists Ramana Venkata and Ramesh Subramonian.

PURPLE YOGI, became known as STRATIFY INCORPORATED ( a privately-held company ).

In early 2001, ORACLE CORPORATION veteran and senior executive Nimish Mehta became president and chief executive officer ( CEO ).

STRATIFY INC., headquartered in Mountain View, California ( USA ), is [ 2002 ] the ‘emerging’ leader in ‘unstructured data management’ software.

STRATIFY Discovery System is a ‘complete enterprise software platform’ helping todays [ 2002 ] organizations ‘harness vast information overload’ by ‘automating the process’ of ‘organizing’, ‘classifying’ and ‘presenting’ business-critical unstructured information usually found in ‘documents’, ‘presentations’ and internet website pages.

STRATIFY Discovery System platform ‘transforms unstructured internal and external data’ into ‘immediately accessible relevant information’ automatically organizing millions of documents displayed in easy navigational hierarchy.

STRATIFY INC. clients, include:

INLUMEN and INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, named in 2001 as one ( 1 ) of The Red Herring 100.

STRATIFY INC. received funding, from:

IN-Q-TEL; H & Q AT INDIA (also known as ) H & Q ASIA PACIFIC; SOFTBANK VENTURE CAPITAL ( now known as ) MOBIUS VENTURE CAPITAL; SKYBLAZE VENTURES LLC; and, INTEL CAPITAL.

SRD [ http://www.srdnet.com ] ( Near Real Time Data Warehousing and Link Analysis )

SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ( SRD ), founded in 1983, develops software applications to combat fraud, theft, and collusion.

SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness ™ ( NORA ™ ) was originally developed for the gambling casino gaming industry

SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT NORA software is designed to identify correlations across vast amounts of structured data, from hundreds or thousands of data sources, in near real-time, and alert users to potentially harmful relationships between and among people.

SRD NORA software technology leverages SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT proven expertise in ‘aggregating’, ‘warehousing’ and ‘leveraging people data’ and ‘transaction data’ to strengthen corporate management and security systems.

SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT clients [ 2002 ], include:

U.S. Depaartment of Defense ( DOD ); CENDANT; TARGET; MGM MIRAGE; MANDALAY BAY RESORT GROUP; and, Food Marketing Institute.

TACIT [ http://www.tacit.com ] ( Enterprise Expertise Automation )

TACIT, founded in 1997, is located in Palo Alto, California ( USA ) with regional sales offices in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Illinois.

David Gilmour serves as president and chief executive officer ( CEO ).

TACIT Knowledge Systems is the pioneer and leader in ‘Enterprise Expertise Automation’.

TACIT products ‘automatically and continuously inventories’ the ‘skills’ and ‘work focus’ of an ‘entire organization’ for ‘dynamic location’ of ‘connections to expertise needed’ – when needed to make decisions, solve problems, and serve customers.

TACIT products also include its award winning flagship product KnowledgeMail™. In June 200, TACIT was voted one of the “Hot 100 Private Companies,” by Upside Magazine.

In 2000 and 2001, TACIT was one ( 1 ) of the “100 Companies that Matter,” by KM World [ Knowledge Management World ].

TACIT attracted a ‘world class advisory board’ with interest from ‘venture capital’ and Fortune 500 ‘clients’ of ‘enterprise’ and ‘customers’, including:

IN-Q-TEL; JP MORGAN; CHEVRON-TEXACO ( petroleum and chemical ); UNISYS; HEWLETT-PACKARD; NORTHROP-GRUMAN ( aerospace & defense ); and, ELI LILLY ( pharmaceuticals ).

TACIT investors, include:

IN-Q-TEL; DRAPER FISHER JURVETSON; REUTERS GREENHOUSE FUND; and, ALTA PARTNERS.

TRACTION SOFTWARE [ http://www.tractionsoftware.com ] ( Harvest and Use Information from All Sources )

TRACTION SOFTWARE, founded in 1996, is located in Providence, Rhode Island ( USA ).

TRACTION® Software is the leader in ‘Enterprise Weblog’ software, bringing together working ‘communications’, ‘knowledge management’, ‘content management’, ‘collaboration’, and the ‘writable intranet portal’.

TRACTION TeamPage™ product addresses the need for ‘unified on-demand view’ of ‘team content’ and ‘team communication’ from ‘all document sources’ in ‘context’ and over ‘time’.

TRACTION TeamPage deploys quickly and easily on an existing network and delivers a ‘capstone communication system’ by turning ‘e-mail’ and ‘web browser’ into powerful tools for end-users.

TeamPage targets ‘program teams’ and ‘product management teams’ in ‘government’ and ‘business’.

TRACTION also supports a wide range of applications and business processes, including but not limited, to:

Business Intelligence and Market Research;

Collection Highlighting and Media Distribution;

Investor Relations E-Mail and Public Relations E-Mail Triage and Response; and,

Tracking Exception Process and Reporting Exception Process.

TRACTION SOFTWARE investors, include:

IN-Q-TEL; SLATER CENTER FOR INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY; and, private investors.

ZAPLET INCORPORATED [ http://www.zaplet.com ] ( Enterprise Collaboration Tools For Email )

ZAPLET INC., founded in 1999, is located in Redwood Shores, California ( USA ).

ZAPLET INC. is an enterprise software and services company and creator of the Zaplet Appmail System™ collaboration software that brings application functionality directly to a user’s inbox to complete business processes.

ZAPLET INC. Appmail, using a server-based platform, combines power, ‘centralized control’ and ‘robust security’ for traditional enterprise application systems with the convenience and ease-of-use of e-mail.

ZAPLET Appmail in-box becomes the gateway to a protected server where the application functionality and data securely reside.

Zaplet™ Appmail can be used, to:

Manage and Streamline mission-critical business processes; Requires no additional client-side upgrades; and, Instantly expandable for work teams ‘beyond’ the ‘enterprise’.

ZAPLET INC. has received numerous awards, including:

Red Herring 100; Enterprise Outlook – Investors’ Choice; and, Internet Outlook – Investors’ Choice.

ZAPLET INC. customers, include leading companies, in:

Finance; Telecommunication; High technologies; and, Government.

ZAPLET INC. is backed by world class investors, including:

KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB ); ACCENTURE TECHNOLOGY VENTURES; QUESTMARK PARTNERS L.P.; RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED ( RIM ); INTEGRAL CAPITAL PARTNERS; ORACLE CORPORATION; CISCO SYSTEMS INC.; and, NOVELL INC.

– –

Circa: 2010

IN-Q-TEL

Investments –

Portfolio of Companies ( 2010 ) – Partial List

3VR Security AdaptivEnergy Adapx Arcxis Asankya Basis Technology Bay Microsystems CallMiner Cambrios Carnegie Speech CleverSafe ( SAIC ) CopperEye Destineer Elemental Technlogies Ember Corporation Endeca Etherstack FEBIT FireEye FluiDigm

Reference(s)

http://web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/news/attachments/InQTelInvestmentPortfolio.pdf http://www.iqt.org/technology-portfolio/orionmagic.html http://defense-ventures.com/in-q-tel/

– – – –

Now if you thought you graduated with honors magna cum laude – think again and begin reading ( below ):

QUCOMM – Long Distance Photonic Quantum Communication

Brief –

An overview of the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory ( New Mexico, USA ) on Quantum Computation and Cryptography

The idea of quantum computation and cryptography is to use the laws of quantum mechanics for either computing or exchange secrets messages.

Los Alamos is a leader in Experimental Quantum Computation [ EQC ].

The recent discovery that it was possible to use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ) for quantum computation has made experimental work leap forward.

The 3-qubit quantum computer – using NMR techniques with the molecule trichloroethylene – is state-of-the-art at present ( winter 1998 ).

We have succeeded at creating a GHZ state.

This is the “big brother” of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen ( EPR ) state.

Using qubits with state |0> and |1>, we have created the state |000> + |111>. It is well known form the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Both the EPR and the GHZ state have properties that are non-classical. For more details see our paper NMR-GHZ [ http://xxx.lanl.gov/ps/quant-ph/9709025 ].

Quantum error correction is required to compensate for the fragility of the state of a quantum computer.

We report the first [ 1st ] experimental implementations of quantum error correction and confirm the expected state stabilization.

A precise study of the decay behavior is studied in alanine and a full implementation of error correction protocol is implemented in trichloroethylene.

In NMR computing, however, a net improvement in the signal-to-noise would require very high polarization.

The experiment implemented the 3-bit code for phase errors in liquid state-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ).

Quantum mechanics provides spectacular new information processing abilities.

One of the most unexpected is a procedure called ‘quantum teleportation’ – suggested by Bennet, et al. [  http://www.research.ibm.com/quantuminfo/teleportation ] – that allows the ‘quantum state of a system’ to be ‘transported from one location to another’ – without moving through the intervening space.

We have implemented the ‘full quantum teleportation operation’ over ‘inter-atomic distances’ using ‘liquid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)’. [ see, e.g. Electronic Transfer In Mesoscopic Systems, Quantum Kinetics, Magnetoresistance Within Magnetic Layering, Liquid State NMR, etc. (http://www.quantiki.org/wiki/Liquid-state_NMR ) ]

The inclusion of the final stage enables – for the first [ 1st ] time – a teleportation implementation, that may be used as a ‘subroutine’ in ‘larger quantum computations’, or for ‘quantum communication’.

Our experiment also demonstrates the use of ‘quantum process tomography’, a procedure to ‘completely characterize the dynamics of a quantum system’.

Finally, we demonstrate a controlled exploitation of decoherence as a tool to assist in the performance of an experiment.

Using quantum mechanics – instead of classical mechanics – has huge advantages but also some drawbacks; quantum mechanics make the ‘applications much more powerful’ but at the same time much more ‘fragile’ against ‘noise’.

Organization Information –

KUNGLIGA TEKNISKA HOGSKOLAN Valhallavaegen 79 100 44 Stockholm SWEDEN

CONTACT: Anders Karlsson

TEL: +46-8-7521272

FAX: +46-8-7521240

E-MAIL: aandkar@ele.kth.se

WWW : http://www.ele.kth.se/QEO/qucomm ( Project website )

Long Distance Photonic Quantum Communication (aka) LDPQC interalia the QuComm Project, will:

1. Scale secure quantum communication towards longer distances;

2. Realize novel applications; and,

3. Identify and transfer ‘spin-off applications’ to ‘industry’ [ i.e. ‘private sector’ businesses ].

The physical resources explored, are:

Entangled quantum states having no classical counterpart.

Work will be pursued on novel sources, for:

1. Direct ‘generation of entangled photon states’ in ‘electrically pumped structures’;

2. Diode-laser pumped ‘non-linear optical crystals’; and,

3. Detectors or ‘multiphoton states’.

Basic quantum information building blocks, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping, will be developed. Field demonstrations will be used to validate the technology, both at 700nm – 800nm ( free space and optical fibers ) and at 1300 nm and 1550 nm ( telecommunication fibers and systems ).

The consortium consists of both ‘universities’ and ‘industries’ [ private sector businesses ] – those with a broad ‘physics’ and ‘technology’ background.

QuComm Objectives –

1. Extend experimental quantum communication protocols – notably ‘quantum teleportation entanglement swapping’ and ‘entanglement quantum cryptography’ towards ‘longer distances’. In particular, to explore ‘physical resource of entangled states’ of ‘multiple photons’ that otherwise lack finding a counterpart in classical physics;

2. Experimentally demonstrate quantum communication protocols for cryptographic applications in point-to-point and multiparty quantum cryptography – using ‘entangled quantum states’ to ‘achieve’ an ‘increased level of security’ – compared to ‘faint-pulse quantum cryptography’;

3. Validate optical quantum communication technologies – in an ‘application context’ through various field tests of the developed concepts and technologies; and,

4. Identify and transfer ‘spin off’ results – from ‘quantum communication technologies’ – to industries [ private sector businesses ] or to industries-to-be [ ‘emerging’ technology businesses’ ], notably SMEs.

Work Description –

The work will be divided into six [ 6 ] quantum state Work Packages ( WP ) [ ‘problem sets’ ], each with designated WP [ ‘problem set’ ] ‘leaders’:

WP0, leads – ‘Management’ [ i.e. IN-Q-TEL Quantum Interface Center ( QIC ) interalia CIA ], additionally dealing with ‘dissemination’ and ‘industrial take-up’ [ private sector transfers to private sector businesses ] of results [ ‘products’ / ‘solutions’ to ‘market’ for ‘profitability’ ];

WP1, leads – ‘Sources’ [ ‘partners’ ( i.e. ‘businesses’ / ‘institutions’ ]; and,

WP2, leads – ‘Analyzers’ ( i.e. ‘detectors’ / ‘analysts’ / ‘individuals’ ) enabling ‘building block formations’ for ‘subsequent work’.

[ NOTE: Once “sources” and “analyzers” ( ‘detectors’ interalia ‘analysts’ ) are available – in some cases, during project infancy – they will be transferred to later [ “subsequent” ] quantum state Work Packages. ]

WP3, leads – Entanglement enhanced quantum cryptography – focused on ‘entangled states’ – and ‘multi-party quantum cryptography’;

WP4, leads – Teleporting entanglement; and,

WP5, leads – Protocols ( multimode and multistate ) utilizing optimized sources and analyzers for the realization of quantum communication protocols, both ‘significantly improved versions’ of ‘earlier demonstrations’, as well as ‘entirely novel protocols’.  [ NOTE: In WP5, ALCATEL THALES III-V Lab ( Palaiseau Cedex, France ) will work on different schemes of ‘phase locked loop’ to ‘reduce phase noise’ of generated mmW, and will also facilitate exploitation of the ‘results’ achieved through small scale fabrication and/or ‘technology transfer’ ( http://www.ist-iphobac.org/partners/index.asp?id=3 ).

WP 6, leads – Field tests ‘assembled work’ – in earlier work packages ( WPs ) used – to ‘conduct trials outside the laboratory setting’.

By having a ‘separately delineated’ [ sensitive ‘compartmentalized’ information ( SCI ) ] work packages ( WP ) [ ‘problem sets’ ], it will be possible, to:

1. Assure ‘availability of test sites’;

2. Provide ‘coherence in goals’ of ‘field trials’; and,

3. Provide ‘joint experience’ for ‘realization of trials’.

The ‘management’ of the consortium [ http://www.ist-iphobac.org/login.asp ] will be with a ‘management committee’:

1. One [ 1 ] person from each ‘partner’ ( same person as the WP leader, in most cases ); and,

2. One [ 1 ] person from the ‘associated partner’.

The progress of work will be monitored through ‘bi-monthly management reports’ assembled by the WP leader and sent to the ‘coordinator’ [ ? ].

The consortium will meet every 6-months, to:

1. Highlight scientific work;

2. Discuss progress; and,

3. Discuss modifications to the project.

A small ‘industrial advisory committee’, will:

1. Monitor progress of the project; and,

2. Advise and assist in ‘transferring’ – industrial relevant – ‘results’.

The project will ‘disseminate results’, through:

1. Channels Established;

2. Industrial Advisors; and,

3. Community Others [ ‘select attendees’ of organized ‘joint meetings’ and ‘workshops’ ].

QuComm Member List –

Number | Name | Short name | Country

P01 Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan [ http://www.ele.kth.se/QEO/ ]  KTH S [ Sweden ]

P02 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München [ http://scotty.quantum.physik.uni-muenchen.de/ ]  LMU G [ Munich, Germany ]

P03 Institut Experimentalphysik der Universität Wien [ http://www.quantum.univie.ac.at/ ] EXPENIVIE A [ Vienna, Austria ]

P04 University of Oxford [ http://www.qubit.org/ ] Oxford UK [ United Kingdom ]

P05 University of Geneva, Group of Applied Physics [ http://www.gapoptique.unige.ch/ ] GAP CH [ Switzerland ]

P06 Los Alamos National Laboratory [ http://qso.lanl.gov/qc/ ] LANL US

P07 THOMSON-HOUSTON ( THALES ) LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DE RECHERCHES ( LCR ) [ http://www.thalesgroup.com/Press_Releases/Descartes_prize_awarded_to_a_European_project_invo/ ] THLCR F [ Domaine de Corbeville, 91400 Orsay, Cedex, FRANCE ] [ NOTE: Second ( 2nd ) largest participant in the UK defense industry. On December 6, 2000 was eventually renamed THALES OPTRONIQUE S.A. ( Elancourt, France ), an electronics company delivering information systems and services for aerospace, defense, and security markets. THALES GROUP is partially state-owned ( France ), operates in more than 50 countries, has 68,000 employees, generated €12.9 billion in 2009 revenues, ranked 485th world’s largest company by Fortune 500 Global, is the 9th largest defense contractor in the world, and sees military sales that are 63% of THALES GROUP total sales. ]

P08 Defence Evaluation and Research Agency [ http://www.dera.gov.uk/html/electronics/single_photon_optics_and_quantum_cryptography.htm ] DERA UK

GAP-Optique

University of Geneva, Department of Physics [ http://mpej.unige.ch/physics.html ] ( Geneva, Switzerland )

University of Geneva [ http://www.unige.ch ] ( Geneva, Switzerland )

QRandom is a physical random number generator ( RNG ) based on the intrinsic randomness of quantum mechanics. The random process used is the choice of a photon between the two outputs of a beam-splitter.

The generator is easy to use ( USB plug’n play support and self-powered ) and sufficiently fast for cryptographic applications (100 kHz of raw bits rate ).

The generated files can be processed by the program RNG Tester. This program allows to acquire, to apply an unbiasing procedure and to test files of random bits.

See Photo:

BT Quantum Optics Group:

We live in a quantum world – something physicists have considered with amazement for more than seventy years. It is only now that we realize that quantum physics is more than a radical departure from classical physics. It also offers many new possibilities for information processing.

In particular, quantum theory is non-local: it predicts entanglement between distant systems leading to correlations that cannot be explained by any theory based only on local variables, as demonstrated by Bell inequality.

All experiments are in remarkable agreement with quantum theory. Hence, the physics community faces a very strange worldview: in theory, everything is entangled, but, in practice, decoherence makes it impossible to reveal this entanglement. In addition to its “experimental metaphysics” aspects, quantum entanglement has recently gained much interest and respect because it is at the heart of quantum information processing.

The general idea is that entanglement provides means to carry out tasks that are either impossible classically ( like quantum cryptography ) or that would require significantly more steps to perform on a classical computer ( like factorization ).

However, how robust is quantum entanglement?

How long can one maintain it under control? Over which distances?

Can one really exploit it?

It is worth to emphasize this psychological revolution: for decades entanglement was considered as a source for quantum paradoxes, now it is considered as a resource to achieve tasks classically impossible.

Our activities in experimental quantum optics started in 1993 with a project on cavity effects in silvered microfibers. Almost at the same time we performed a first simple experiment in Quantum Cryptography ( QC ) [ see, e.g. publications, look up ] just for fun.

Nobody then [ 1993 ] would have imagined that in 1999 we would be one of the world leaders in this field. In fact, during a 2-years project supported by SWISSCOM, we developed an automated [ see, e.g. QC-setup, News, Crypto 98, Plug & Play ] with unprecedented performances.

We are currently participating in the Esprit-Project ” European Quantum Cryptography and Single Photon Technologies ” ( EQCSPOT ) in order to develop a QC-prototype.

Within national projects we developed compact sources of entangled photon pairs. With such a source we performed a record-breaking Bell experiment [ see, e.g. QC, Publications, Look Up ] between two [ 2 ] villages near Geneva [ Switzerland ] separated by more than 10 kilometers [ km ].

More generally, we are studying now the relation between non-locality and relativity and the application of novel sources of entangled photons for quantum communication. Our basic research also led to practical results such as an original setup for chromatic dispersion measurements, a novel technique for absolute detector calibration and the development of single-photon detectors in the near infra-red [ IR ].

Reference

http://www.dstl.gov.uk/html/electronics/single_photon_optics_and_quantum_cryptography.htm

Research

http://www.ist-optimist.unibo.it/pdf/network/projects_public/QUCOMM/Deliverables/D8.pdf

– – – –

Example

Since 2005, the THALES Group has successfully manufactured TV/4 format QWIP sensitive arrays in high rate production at the THALES Research and Technology Laboratory.

The full-TV array manufacturing started in 2007.

Uniformity and stability were the key parameters that led to the selection of this technology for thermal cameras.

Another widely claimed advantage for QWIPs was the versatility of the band-gap engineering and of III-V processing allowing custom design of quantum structures to fulfill the requirements of specific applications such as:

1. Very long wavelength ( VLWIR );

2. Multi-spectral detection; and,

3. Polarimetric detection.

Serial production of CATHERINE-XP and CATHERINE-MP has now started for the various programs for which both cameras have been selected. A review of the QWIP Production status, CATHERINE achievements and current programs are presented.

THALES based current strategy on very compact TI in order to address the largest range of platforms and applications.

THALES is working in cooperation with Sofradir and TRT / III-V lab on the evolution of product taking advantage of new capabilities offered by QWIP technology.

Future products are under development, based on:

1. Dual band;

2. Multi-band; and,

3. Polarimetric imagery.

Research

http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=40105

http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAR10/Event/121362

http://www.thalesgroup.com/Portfolio/Aerospace/LandJoint_Products_Optronic_self-protection_LWR/?pid=1568

http://www.thalesgroup.com/Markets/Security/Related_Activities/Hypervisor/Content/Next_generation_supervision_architecture/

http://www.ist-isis.org/index/isis-partners.html

http://web.archive.org/web/20080319045528/www.opera2015.org/links/default.asp

http://www.dtic.mil/mctl/DSTL/DSTLSec17gg.pdf

– – – –

To begin tying aforementioned information into a perspective where one needs further research, read these Unwanted Intelligence Annex I reports, at:

http://upintelligence.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/information-technology-directorate

http://upintelligence.wordpress.com/2010/10/23/extraterrestrial-information-technologies

When you’re ready, e-mail, for more.

 

Submitted for review and commentary by,

 

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

/

/

 

Robot Combat Intelligence

[ PHOTO ( above ): W-88 miniature nuclear bomb property of USA ( click to enlarge ) ]

Robot Combat Intelligence
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

January 18, 2011 21:08:42 ( PST ) ( Originally Published: February 1, 2002 )

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington – January 18, 2011 – Over 12-years ago, after the United States realized too late that its ‘miniature nuclear weapons technology delivery system’ ( W-88 ) secrets had already been stolen ( from the vault of its insurance carrier ) after the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ) rapidly produced their own version, ‘only a select few’ realized a secret U.S. decision took futuristic concepts into development for U.S. global military applications deploying technologies that only seemed to have been conceived from science-fiction motion picture films ( e.g. STAR TREK, STAR WARS, MATRIX, and more ) shocking audiences worldwide.   In 1999, U.S. secret defense endeavors forgings – with several universities and U.S. government contract private sector organizations – were led by the U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) created even newer more advanced multiple Program stratagems employing various forms of ‘combinatoric’ technologies developed for globally deploying U.S. military dominance with various and sundry secret-sensitive devices and systems far beyond many imaginations.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS Program –

DARPA SIMBIOSYS Program entails, amongst other things, multi-functional microbiological nano technology robot android devices primarily for military applications, where such remained until just a few years ago, until it began being applied in some medical arenas today.

To understand what is ‘current’, one must first look briefly at DARPA Programs ‘past’ ( 1999 – 2002 ), which ( alone ) is enough to ‘still send chills down many people’s spines today’. Once realizing what DARPA was doing 12-years ago, it’s not all that unfathomable to comprehend where DARPA has taken and will continue taking many.

SIMBIOSYS ( 1999 – 2002 ) –

In 1999, DARPA SIMBIOSYS developed a combined quantitative understanding of various biological phenomena characteristics opening the DARPA door to what amounts to MicroElectroMechanical Systems ( MEMS ) integrating microphotonics in, amongst many things such as electro-optic spatial light modulators ( SLM ) combining very short pulse solid state lasers providing powerful new capabilities for secure communication up-links ( multi-gigabits per second ), ‘aberration free’ 3-D imaging and targeting performed at very long ranges ( greater than 1,000 kilometers away ), innovative design system integration of MEMS spatial light modulators ( SLM ) providing quantum wavefront control leaps in photonics and high speed electronics, and even ‘flexible cloth-like smart materials’ DARPA wants hardware placed into production devices and systems applications optimizing both U.S. and ‘its specially selected few other foreign nation U.S. friendlies’ ( Israel ) to hold in future warfaring battlespace management superiority over other foreign nation threats.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS includes classes of biological molecules ( i.e. antigens, antibodies, DNA, cytokines, enzymes, etc. ) for analyses and diagnoses studies, from:

1. Biochemical sensors, sensing ‘details from environments’; and,

2. Biochemical sensors, sensing ‘details from human body fluids’.

Specific examples under each of those two ( 2 ) groups being left up to the discretion of the PI.

Bio-molecules importance slect criteria, includes:

1. Microsystem sensors, for automated sampling and analyses, extendibility;

2. Bio-molecules simulant, to which it represents U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ) relevant extents; and,

3. Bio-detection high degree of sensitivity and specificity processing, etc.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS emphasis is at the ‘molecular level’ for ‘sensing’ and ‘detection’.

SIMBIOSYS Program precludes human cells and human tissue based sensing because other DARPA programs currently address those issues in combination thereof.

SIMBIOSYS Goals –

SIMBIOSYS Program ‘stimulates multi-disciplinary research’ – bringing together biologists, chemists, engineers, physicists, computer scientists and others to address difficult and pressing challenges in advancing micro and nano-biotechnology.

SIMBIOSYS Program goal is to ‘utilize phenomena’ in ‘bio-fluidic transport’, ‘molecular recognition’ and ‘signal transduction from joint studies in modeling and experiments.

SIMBIOSYS Program joint effort expects results in ‘new hardware device, new hardware processes and new hardware production communities that will begin utilizing new models, new rules, new methods and new processes together enabling design and development of enhanced performance next generation bio-microdevices.

DARPA Advanced Projects –

DARPA is focusing on, amongst many, these advanced projects:

1. Bioengineering artificial intelligence ( AI ) systems sized from nanometers and meters up to large-scale robotic systems deployed globally;

2. Biological hybrid devices and systems, inspired from computational algorithms and models;

3. Biosynthesized composite materials incorporating synthetic enzymes and pathways from biochemical cellular engineered concepts for application productions;

4. Neural phenomena control over system science computation measurement application interfaces addressing humans;

5. Micro-scale reagents biochemically engineered;

6. Biosynthesis signal processing control platform studies;

7. Molecular biological population level behavior dynamic simulation modeling complexes; and,

8. Subcellular device physics affects and cellular device physics affects within biological component systems using real-time non-destructive observation study techniques.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy MicroFlyer, only a Microelectronic Aerial Vehicle – MAV ( click to enlarge ) ]

Bioengineered MicroBots Developed & Deployed –

Battlefields now require ‘unmanned combat aerial vehicles’ ( UCAV ) and ‘advanced weapons’ that self-navigate and self-reconfigure with autonomous communication systems accomplishing time-critical commands, however while many use Commercial Off The Shelf ( COTS ) products, such is not the case for developed and deployed bioengineered microrobots.

MicroBot AMR Control By MARS –

DARPA mobile autonomous robot software ( MARS ) Project is designed to develop and transition ‘currently unavailable software technologies programming’ operations of autonomous mobile robots ( AMR ) in partially known changing and unpredictable environments.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS Program aims provide new software removing humans from combat, conveyance, reconnaissance, and surveillance processes by:

1. Extending military hardware range;

2. Lowering manpower costs;

3. Removing human physiology for swifter concepts, designs, engineering, development, and deployment successes; and,

4. Researchers demonstrating autonomous navigation of humanoid robots, unmanned military vehicles, autonomous vehicles and interactions between humans.

DARPA indicates that robots – to be meaningful – must be fully integrated into human lives in military, commercial, educational and domestic usages must be capable of interacting in more natural human ways.

DARPA funded research and development of robots given similar bodies with human-like intelligence for humanoid interaction providing new ways for the human world.

COG Robot –

DARPA funded Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) researchers, employing a set of sensors and actuators ( with small microcontrollers for joint level control, up to larger audio-visual digital signal network pre-processors for controlling different levels of its heterogeneous hierarchy network ) approximating human body sensory and motor dynamics, created the robot named COG that eventually allowed DARPA further development of deployable, modular, reconfigurable and autonomous robots.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Biomorphic Explorers – Snakes and Bats ( click to enlarge ) ]

CONRO Robots –

CONRO robots, developed through DARPA, employed autonomous capabilities, of:

1. Self-repair; and, 2. Morphogenesis ( changing shapes ).

Examples, amongst many, included design styled:

Snake robots, able to move ‘in-to’ and ‘out-of’ tight spaces; and,

Insect robots, able to move faster ( covering more ground meeting military mission swifter needs ).

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Spider, and Payload biochemical delivery simulation ( click to enlarge ) ]

CONRO robots were design equipped to perform two ( 2 ) missions:

1. Reconnaissance ( activity detection, monitorization, and reporting – surveillance ); and,

2. Deliver small ‘military payloads’ ( bio-chemical weapons, etc. ) into ‘enemy occupied remote territory locations’ ( away-from friendly warfighters ).

CONRO robots are comprised of multiple SPIDERLINK modules.

In 1999, DARPA built both ‘snakes’ and ‘hexapods’ as ‘initially tethered’ prototypes termed 1-DOF, equipped with abilities to both ‘dock’ and ‘gait ambulate’ based on applied computational algorithms.

In 2000, DARPA had twenty ( 20 ) autonomous self-sufficient ‘modules’ – not mentioning what those resembled – built designated as 2-DOF, after:

1. Hormone based control developed and tested theory;

2. Hormone hexapods and snakes implemented motions ( for 2-DOF );

3. Quadrupeds, hexapods and snakes implemented locomotion with centralized control for 2-DOF;

4. Morphing self-repair ‘modules’ delivering small payloads used ‘miniature cameras’ that were designed and tested; and,

5. Snake head with snake tail with configured docking capabilities were implemented laboratory two dimensional ( 2-D ) testing.

CONRO DARPA Near-Term Milestones:

1. Modules’ reconfigurability ( morphogenesis ) robust automation designed and demonstrated ( for 2-DOF );

2. Topology ‘discovery’ ( automatic topography recognition ) demonstration;

3. Gait reconfiguration ( morphogenesis ) automation for ambulating a ‘given’ ( programmed instruction ) topology designed and demonstrated;

4. Gait reconfiguration ( morphogenesis ) automation for ambulating a ‘discovery’ ( automatic topography recognition ) designed and demonstrated;

5. Wireless ( radio frequency, infra-red, etc. ) control of miniature cameras demonstrated;

6. Pointing ( waving, mousepad, etc. ) control of miniature cameras demonstrated; and,

7. Large scale deployment of CONRO robots demonstrated.

[ PHOTO ( above ): DARPA BioBot named Blaberus ( click to enlarge ) ]

Deployer Robot ( DR ) –

Deployer Robots ( DR ) ‘support’ and ‘deploy’ distributed ‘teams of other smaller robots’ termed “Joeys” ( singular, “Joey” ) that perform either ‘hazardous tasks’ or ‘tedious tasks’.

Deployer Robots ( DR ) have two ( 2 ) roles, that:

1. Carry and launch given numbers of smaller Joey robots ( Joeys ); and,

2. Command and control ( C2 ) – after launching – Joey robots ( Joeys ).

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy CyberLink HID test USAF personnel with DARPA robots ( click to enlarge ) ]

Robot Loop Pyramid –

Robot-in-the-Loop ( RIL ) concept, augments Human-in-Loop ( HIL ), building a ‘pyramid of robots’ – supervised by one ( 1 ) person.

‘Launch’ and ‘Command and Control’ ( C2 ) – of different Joey robots ( multiple, i.e. Joeys ) – two ( 2 ) goals are handled independently, as:

1. ‘Launch’ of robots, via grenade sized Joey robot clusters ( multiple ), developed under DARPA Deployer Robot ( DR ) Program availability of smaller Joeys; and,

2. ‘Command and Control’ ( C2 ), is investigated using ‘larger robots’ developed for DARPA ITO sister Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program enabling fully leverage of both Deployer Robot ( DR Program and Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program development of algorithms leveraging heterogeneous interaction between a ‘smart’ highly mobile ‘Deployer Robot’ ( DR ) and a ‘team’ of Joey robots that are more powerful, less computational and less mobile.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Virtual Combiman digital glove waving battlespace management ( click to enlarge ) ]

DARPA key universal elements of robot deployment examined:

1. Emplacement – Launching and dynamically situating the Joeys for mission goals;

2. Operations – Maintaining the infrastructure to support the distributed front, including communications and error detection and recovery ( e.g., getting back on course after positional drift ); and,

3. Recovery – Collecting Joey robots data to analyze after delivery into a format useful for the human operator.

DARPA Deployer Robot ( DR ) Program development acquired and refitted two ( 2 ) Urban Robot Upgrades ( URU ) in new Deployer Robots ( DR ) types.

DARPA, investigated five ( 5 ) alternate launch strategies, but selected only one ( 1 ):

1. Grenade barrel launch, delivery of robots, into a three ( 3 ) story building.

2. Grenade barrel launcher was designed, equipped and developed, with:

3. Grenade Magazine contains ‘multiple Joey robots’ for ejection – supports full mobility integrity of the Deployer Robot ( DR );

4. Sensor mast ( collapsible ) – for Deployer Robot ( DR ) interaction with Joey robots launched on arrival at destination location; and,

5. Communication ( 916 MHz ) link between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots.

DARPA SDR Program –

DARPA Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program development designed and built Joey robot prototypes ( approximately 3-1/2 inch cube ) for ultimate fabrication in a production lot quantity of 120 Joey robot units.

DARPA Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program leverage and adaptation controls swarms of Joey robots.

DARPA Near-Term Milestones:

1. Launch propulsion mechanisms ( C02 cartridge, .22 caliber shell, or other ) deployment testing of Joey robots into battlefield areas;

2. Launcher ( of multiple Joey robot deployment ) mechanism built on-board first ( 1st ) Deployer Robot ( DR ) named Bandicoot;

3. Sensor mast ( collapsible ) built and installed on-board second ( 2nd ) Deployer Robot ( DR ) named Wombat;

4. Radio Frequency ( RF ) development protocols for interaction between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots;

5. Infra-Red ( IR ) deployment protocols for interaction mechanisms between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots using IR ( Infra-Red );

6. Human Interface Device ( HID ) operator remote control unit ( ORCU ) development for Deployer Robot ( DR ).

DARPA SIMBIOSYS began over 12-years ago. All the photographs ( above ) are almost one decade ( 10-years ) old.

Current careful research on this subject further provides more information about where the U.S. stands today.

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

Reference

http://web.archive.org/web/20021214110038/http://groups.msn.com/AnExCIA/rampdintell.msnw