Secret HFSE Properties Part 1

[ PHOTO ( above ): HFSE Super-Conducting Electro-Magnetic Pyroclastic Magma – Iceland volcano eruption ( click image to enlarge ) ]

Secret HFSE Properties – Part 1
Emerging Superconducting Magnetic Element Properties
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

December 1, 2011 16:08: 42 (PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: December 9, 2010 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – December 1, 2011 – In 1961, BELL LABORATORIES ( USA ) physicist Eugene Kunzler and co-workers discovered that niobium–tin continued exhibition of superconductivity while in the presence of strong electric currents and magnetic fields, which made niobium-tin the first [ 1st ] material used to support High Field Strength ( HFS ) electrical currents and magnetic field strengths necessary for use in high-power electro-magnets and electrical power machines.

20-years later, the aforementioned discovery allowed production of niobium doped metallic wire wrapped into multi-strand form cables wound into coils creating powerful electro-magnetic force applications seen in particle accelerators, particle detectors, and rotating machines.

High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) holds far greater use from such properties than most professionals and the public realize so, before advancing any further on this subject, a basic foundation of understanding on such materials, elements and their valuable properties must be realized about this ‘extremely old Earth energy resource’, ‘how to harvest it ( from its original molten state )’, ‘how to capture and contain its volatile properties’, and then ‘transform it into applications’ for transportation – ‘yet unrealized factual knowledge’ on this extremely low-cost extremely powerful high-energy resource.

Niobium ( Nb ) –

[ photo ( above ): Niobium ( .9995 fine) crystals ( click to enlarge ) ]

Titanmagnetite (aka) Titanomagnetite mineral, under Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrography ( XRS ), holds detected high measurements [ from 350 ppm ( parts per million ) up to 1,000 ppm ] of the geochemical High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium [ Nb ].

‘Where’ does such a ‘mineral’ ( titanmagnetite ) ‘element’ ( niobium ) originate? Volcanic magma.

‘Where’ are specific locations holding volcanic magma Niobium element properties that possess even ’higher field strength’ magnetics – ‘at least’ six ( 6 ) times greater? The Mariana Trench or other ultra-deep sea continental plate arc locations where volcanoes exist either ‘quite active’ or ‘somewhat dormant’.

Readers may begin to awaken from any slumber when they realize that ultra-deep sea ground trench ( arc ) volcano magma, naturally located nearer to the planet Earth molten liquid superconducting magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) ’core’, sees element properties of Niobium absorbing far purer forms of High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) magnetic properties while within its ‘natural molten liquid state’. Interestingly, nowhere else ‘above ultra-deep sea Earth elevations’ obtain more natural energy power.

How can such a volatile molten resource be ‘excavated’ while simultaneously being isolated from any exposure to contaminations from ‘seawater’, ‘oxygen’ or other environmentals to harness high-energy properties?

The molten material would  additionally have to be placed into a likewise uncontaminated ‘ultra-clean chamber’, whereupon after transport, ’high-energy properties extraction’ must undergo a ‘seamless application process’ for utilization.

What type of use? More basic fundamentals must be initially understood so, let’s begin by taking a look at what’s bubbling out of ultra-deep sea volcano vents and instantly becoming contaminated by seawater ( below ):

[ photo ( above ): Ultra-Deep Sea Trench Arc Volcanic Magma Vent ( click to enlarge ) ]

Preliminary report Part 1 ( herein ) displays a photograph of an above-ground volcano eruption in Iceland experiencing plenty of superconducting High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) property fireworks, however far too little information is ever realized by the public about what ultra-deep sea trench arc volcano magmatic material element properties hold ‘naturally’ as primary key elements to a variety of other advancements.

Volcanic magma, in later stage differentiation, sees Niobium [ Nb ] and Titanium [ Ti ] ratios ‘increase’ five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times above normal ( dry magma melts ).

To comprehend this, along with the importance of harnessing natural Earth high-energy magnetic properties, a basic understanding must be reached from what science, physics and astrophysics indications always seem to avoid for the public.

The purpose of this preliminary report Part 1 is to bring rare knowledge into better public understanding while stimulating solution-minded professionals wishing more done.

Have scientists, physicists, and astrophysicists ‘missed some major solution’ in their discoveries? Are portions of certain discoveries ‘kept quite’ considering serious repercussions? While highly doubtful that any small discovery having a major impact missed any application outlook, ramifications nevertheless are considered by professionals on whether a socio-economic impact will allowed to be proven helpful or otherwise.

Good advice may be to buckle your seatbelt because you are about to venture into some information few have ever known about. Whether most of those reading this may be able to absorb this information ( below ) now, or later, it is suspected that after much easier reading comes in Part 2 through Part 5, most will probably refer back to Part 1 ( herein ).

– – – –

Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 )

Introduction –

High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )


Niobium enrichment, is possible, using two ( 2 ) natural rock-forming minerals:

– Titanmagnetite [ 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ]; and, – Kaersutite [ 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ].

General Information:

Rock-forming Minerals: Titanmagnetite ( element symbols: Ttn/Mag ), and Kaersutite ( Krs ). Elements [ symbols ]: Titanite ( Ttn ), Magnetite ( Mag ) Geochemical Element [ symbols ]: Niobium ( Nb )

Studies & Resolutions –

Subject: Natural High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Materials

Titanmagnetite [ Ttn/Mag ] is a natural super-magnetic mineral, that later experiences a geochemical alteration reducing its magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) properties, as it exits ultra-deep sea arc volcanic magma influenced by hydrothermal fluid seawater ( see “Findings” below ). In its natural magma state where Titanmagnetite ( Ti/Mag ) holds its 6 [ X ] times greater High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) than above-ground.

Niobium ( Nb ) High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) properties can be enhanced even greater by adding only one ( 1 ) mineral, Kaersutite ( Krs ).

For applications, extracting this natural combinatoric high-energy power may not easily be obtained.

Extraction Processes: Capturing Natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Obtaining these properties may be resolved, however while natural initial ingress of high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluid occurences at liquid melts [ magma ] have seen amphibole-plagioclase thermometry suggests ‘fracture and grain’ boundary ‘permeability’ – with seawater derived fluids – ‘open’ over similar temperature interval, however venturing into ultra-deep sea trench arcs and then burroughing into natural state volcanic magma dome vents capturing natural essence of titanmagnetite, and then containing it for processing HFSE properties further may be difficult so, is there an alternative to this type of extraction?

Above-ground experiment observations see major trace geochemical element fractionation trends in bulk rocks and minerals reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry [ magma ] melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) with oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

[ photo ( above ): NASA Astrophysics Data System ( ADS ) ]

Preliminary Findings ( A – F  – below ) –

– – – –


[ NOTE: Titanmagnetite mineral geochemical element Niobium … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 29, Issue 8, pp.807-820

DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(65)90081-5

Bibliographic Code: 1965GeCoA..29..807H

Die verteilung des niobs in den gesteinen und mineralen der alkalibasalt-assoziation der hocheifel by, Hans Gerhard Huckenholz

Publication Date: August 1965

Abstract –

Niobium [ Nb ] contents are determined by the method of fluorescent X-ray spectrography [ FXRS ] for several rock types from the Tertiary Hocheifel volcanic province ( Western Germany ).

Alkalic olivine basalt, contains:

65 ppm Niobium [ Nb ] ( 7 samples );  69 ppm hawaiite ( 4 samples );  86 ppm mugearite ( 3 samples );  95 ppm trachyte ( 5 samples ); 77 ppm basanitoid ( 6 samples );  65 ppm ankaramite ( 2 samples ); 110 ppm hauyne-bearing alkali basalt ( 2 samples ); and,  86 ppm a monchiquite dike.

Niobium enrichment, is observed in the alkalic olivine basalt trachyte [ magma ] series where, in later stage differentiation, Nb [ Niobium ] / Ti ratio increases five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times.

Alkalic olivine basalt magma, however becomes poorer [ less rich ] in niobium [ Nb ] by accumulation of:

– olivine [ 10 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ]; and, – clinopyroxene [ 20 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ].

Enrichment of niobium [ Nb ] is possible by taking-up titanmagnetite ( 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb [ Niobium ] ) and kaersutite ( 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb [ niobium ] ) without olivine and clinopyroxene ( ankaramite HF 5, and the basanitoids ).

The most Nb [ Niobium ] bearing rock-forming mineral is titanmagnetite, containing 65%  to 85% niobium ( in volcanic rock ), however ground-mass clinopyroxene has contents of Niobium [ Nb ] up to 45 ppm, and feldspars have contents of Nb [ Niobium ] up to 67 ppm.


– – – –


[ NOTE: ICP-MS analysis on trace geochemical element ( Niobium, etc. ) enrichment ( 5X greater than normal ) … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: December 2008

Title: Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu – Bonin – Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya

Authors: Basu, A. R.; Ghatak, A.; Arima, M.; Srimal, N.


AA ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; ); AB ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; ); AC ( Yokohama National University, Division of Natural and Environmental Information, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan; ); AD ( Florida International University, Department of Earth Sciences PC 344, University Park 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, Fl 33199, United States; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #V33C-2228

Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes ( 3060, 3613, 8170, 8413 ), 1036 Magma chamber processes ( 3618 ), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry ( 3620 ), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry

Bibliographic Code: 2008AGUFM.V33C2228B


In this study we attempt to contribute to the understanding of a prominent feature, namely the Nb [ Niobium ] – Ta [ Tantalum ] depletion, in arc magmatic trace element geochemistry.

Traditionally, this depletion is explained by residual mantle-wedge phases with Nb [ Niobium ] and Ta [ Tantalum ] affinities, such as titaniferous ilmenite [ Ilm ], rutile [ Rt ] or titanite [ Ttn ], or by an amphibole.

Here, we propose a mechanism – long advocated – to explain the calc-alkaline trend ( Bowen vs. Fenner ) in MgO – FeO ( total Fe ) – ( Na2O + K2O ) ternary diagram by early crystallization and separation of magnetite in ‘subduction zone magmas’ associated with ‘high oxygen’ fugacity ‘environments’.

In support of our hypothesis, we provide high-precision multiple trace element data, including the High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ), in separated magnetites and mafic mineral phases from mafic ‘magmatic enclaves’ associated with ‘tonalite suites’ of two [ 2 ] different ‘magmatic arcs’, the:

– Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone in Japan; and, – Ladakh Batholith Complex of NW Himalayas.

The Tanzawa Complex is composed of diverse rock suites with SiO2 varying from 43% – 75%, ranging from hornblende gabbro through tonalite to leuco-tonalite. The geochemical characteristics of low K – tholeiites, enrichment of Large Ion Lithophile Elements ( LILE ), and depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in rocks of this plutonic complex are similar to those observed in the volcanic rocks of the IBM arc.

The Ladakh batholith Complex is one of the granitic belts exposed north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh, representing calc-alkaline plutonism related to the subduction of the Neotethys floor in Late Cretaceous. This batholith comprises predominantly I-type granites with whole rock delta delta 18O values of 5.7-7.4 per mil, without major contribution from continental crustal material.

In separated magnetites, from five [ 5 ] gabbros of the Tanzawa tonalite-gabbro complex and from three [ 3 ] tonalitic gabbros of the Ladakh batholith, we analyzed 22 trace elements by ICP-MS, including:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Hf [ Hafnium ]; and, Zr [ Zirconium ].

In NMORB [ N Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt ] normalized plots, the trace element patterns of all the magnetites analyzed show enrichment ( 5X NMORB ), in:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Pb [ Lead ]; Sr [ Strontium ]; and, ( 2X NMORB ), in: Zr [ Zirconium ] with characteristically high Nb [ Niobium ], Ta [ Tantalum ] and Zr[ Zirconium ] / Hf [ Hafnium ] ratios.

In contrast, the patterns show anomalously low ( less than 0.1 NMORB ), in:

La [ Lanthanum ]; Ce [ Cesium ]; Pr [ Praseodymium ]; Nd [ Neodymium ]; Sm [ Samarium ]; and, Hf [ Hafnium ] concentrations.

It is noteworthy that in the normalized trace element plot, all the magnetites show ‘high’ Nb [ Niobium ] / Ta ratios, and in contrast with high Ta / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios were observed in typical arc [ volcanic ] magmas.

These data support our hypothesis, that:

Magmatic crystallization, of Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides ( under high oxygen fugacity conditions ) during ‘initial crystallization and formation’ ( of the Izu-Bonin and Ladakh-type arc batholiths ) may be the primary cause of depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in later magmatic differentiates of less mafic and more felsic granitic arc rocks.

Query Results from the ADS Database

Retrieved 1 abstracts, starting with number 1.

Total number selected: 1.


author = {{ Basu }, A.~R. and {Ghatak}, A. and { Arima }, M. and { Srimal }, N. }

title = “{ Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya }”

journal = {AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts},

keywords = {1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes (3060, 3613, 8170, 8413), 1036 Magma chamber processes (3618), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry (3620), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry},

year = 2008, month = dec, pages = { C2228+ }

ADS url = ADS note = Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System


– – – –


[ NOTE: multi-domain topographic elevation studies on magnetite [ Mag ] and hydrothermal fluid affection … ]

Publication Date: December 2007

Title: Spatial Distribution of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Mt. Barcroft Granodiorite, White Mountains, California: Implications for Arc Magmatic Processes

Authors: Michelsen, K. J.; Ferre, E. C.; Law, R. D.; Boyd, J. D.; Ernst, G. W.; de Saint-Blanquat, M.


AA ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; ); AB ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; );’ AC ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; ); AD ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; ); AE ( Stanford University, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, United States ; ); AF ( Universite Paul Sabatier, LMTG, Toulouse, 31400, France ; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #T11B-0567   Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 3640 Igneous petrology, 3660 Metamorphic petrology, 8104 Continental margins: convergent, 8170 Subduction zone processes ( 1031, 3060, 3613, 8413 )

Bibliographic Code: 2007AGUFM.T11B0567M


The petrographic or chemical zonation of plutons, has been widely studied and used to constrain petrogenetic processes and emplacement mechanisms.

The time involved in modal data collection, as well as the cost of chemical analyses, makes the search for pluton-scale zoning patterns the exception rather than the norm in ‘magmatic arc studies’, however magnetic susceptibility ( Km ) of plutonic rocks – both magnetite bearing and magnetite free – can be an invaluable tool to quickly assess the internal organization of any pluton.

New field observations, new magnetic mineral data, and reprocessed Km data on the Barcroft granodiorite pluton ( White Mountains, California ) are presented.

The average Km of 660 specimens from 76 stations ranges from 140 x 10-6 [ SI ] to 75000 x 10-6 [ SI ] with an average at about 16800 x 10-6 [ SI ].

The distribution of Km is unimodal.

The hysteresis parameters of the Barcroft rocks indicate that Km is controlled mainly by multi-domain magnetite.

The contribution of mafic silicates ( biotite and hornblende ) to Km ranges from 0.4 to 99%, with an average at about 1.8%.

As in many other ferromagnetic ( i.e. magnetite – bearing ) plutons, Km variations reflect different amounts of magnetite which itself results from petrographic variations.

This is supported by the positive correlation between major oxide variations ( e.g., SiO2, FeO ) and Km.

A new Km map of the Barcroft pluton shows several important features including, a:

(a) Low Km zone in the SW corner of the pluton, near areas that exhibit economic mineralization possibly related to hydrothermal fluids;

(b) Few isolated anomalies that may be attributed to transformation of normal magnetite into lodestone;

(c) North south high Km ridge that could possibly result from local mingling between the main granodiorite rock type and syn-plutonic mafic dikes;

(d) Broad reverse Km zonation ( i.e. higher Km in the centre ); and,

(e) Possible ‘positive correlation between Km’ and ‘topographic elevation ( between 5,000 and 13,000 feet )’, which could be explained by a higher fO2 at a higher structural level in the chamber.

These preliminary results suggest that, the:

(1) Syn-plutonic diking may play a significant role in the geochemical differentiation of granodiorite plutons;

(2) Classic dichotomy between ilmenite [ Ilm ] series and magnetite [ Mag ] series of granitoids might at least – to some extent – depend on the ‘exposure level’ if such intrusions are confirmed to be vertically differentiated; and,

(3) Mapping Km in a ferromagnetic pluton can be an efficient tool to constrain its internal organization.


– – – –


[ NOTE: geochemistry and petrology of deep oceanic crust geothermal high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluids … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: November 2002

Title: Petrology and geochemistry of the lower ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise and exposed at Hess Deep: A synthesis and new results

Authors: Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Thompson, G. M.; Hékinian, R.

Publication: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Volume 3, Issue 11, pp. 1, CiteID 8604, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000230 (GGG Homepage)

Origin: AGU [ ]

AGU Keywords: Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Igneous petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Metamorphic petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Minor and trace element composition.

Bibliographic Code: 2002GGG….3kQ…1C


The geochemistry and petrology of the lower oceanic crust record information about the compositions of melts extracted from the mantle, how these melts mix and crystallize, and the role of hydrothermal circulation in this portion of the crust.

Unfortunately, lower oceanic crust formed at fast spreading ridges is rarely exposed at the seafloor making it difficult to study these processes.

At Hess Deep, crust formed at the East Pacific Rise ( EPR ) is exposed due to the propagation of the Cocos-Nazca spreading center westward.

Here we review our state of knowledge of the petrology of lower crustal material from Hess Deep, and document new mineral major and trace element compositions, amphibole-plagioclase thermometry, and plagioclase crystal size distributions.

Samples from the deeper parts of the gabbroic sequence contain clinopyroxene that is close to being in trace element equilibrium with erupted basalts but which can contain primitive ( moderate Cr, high Mg# ) orthopyroxene and very calcic plagioclase.

Because primitive Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ( MORB / MORBs ) are not saturated with orthopyroxene or very calcic plagioclase this suggests that melts added to the crust have variable compositions and that some may be in major but not trace element equilibrium with shallow depleted mantle.

These apparently conflicting data, are most readily explained if some of the melt – extracted from the mantle – is fully aggregated within the mantle but reacts with the shallow mantle during melt extraction.

The occurrence of cumulates, with these characteristics, suggests that ‘melts added to the crust’ do not all get mixed with normal MORB [ Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ] in the Axial Magma Chamber ( AMC ), but rather that ‘some melts partially crystallize’ in isolation within the lower crust.

However, evidence that primitive melts fed the AMC [ Axial Magma Chamber ], along with steep fabrics in shallow gabbros ( from near the base of the dyke complex ), provides support for models in which crystallization within the AMC followed by crystal subsidence is also an important process in lower crustal accretion.

More evolved bulk compositions of gabbros ( from the upper than lower parts of the plutonic section ), are due to greater amounts of ‘reaction with interstitial melt’ and not because their parental melt had become highly fractionated through the formation of large volumes of cumulates deeper in the crust.

Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry confirms, previous reports, that the initial ingress of fluid occurs at high-temperatures in the shallow gabbros ( Tave 713° C ) and show that the temperature of amphibole formation was similar in deeper gabbros ( Tave 722°C ).

This thermometry also suggests that fracture and grain boundary permeability for seawater derived fluids was open over the same temperature interval.


– – – –


[ NOTE: analysis of new major data and trace element data from minerals … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: December 2010

Title: The `Daly Gap’ and implications for magma differentiation in composite shield volcanoes: A case study from Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand

Authors: Hartung, E.; Kennedy, B.; Deering, C. D.; Trent, A.; Gane, J.; Turnbull, R. E.; Brown, S.


AA ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AB ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; );

AC ( Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; );

AD ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AE ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AF ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AG ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #V52B-02

Origin: AGU

Keywords: [ 3610 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Geochemical modeling, [ 3618 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Magma chamber processes, [ 3620 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Mineral and crystal chemistry, [ 3640 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Igneous petrology

Bibliographic Code: 2010AGUFM.V52B..02H


The origin of compositional gaps in volcanic deposits that are found worldwide, and in a range of different tectonic settings, has challenged petrologists since Daly’s first observations at mid-ocean ridges.

In the shield-forming Akaroa Volcano ( 9.6 – 8.6 Ma ) of Banks Peninsula ( New Zealand ), a dramatic compositional gap exists in both eruptive and co-genetic intrusive products between basalt and trachyte, and between gabbro and syenite respectively.

Rock compositions display mildly alkaline affinities ranging from picritic basalt, olivine alkali basalt, and hawaiite, to trachyte.

Intermediate mugearite and benmoreite ( 50 – 60 wt. % SiO2 ) are not exposed or absent.

Equivalent plutonic diorite, monzodiorite, and monzonite ( 45 – 65 wt. % SiO2 ) are also absent.

Previously, the formation of the more evolved trachyte and syenite has been ascribed to ‘crustal melting’, however our analysis of new major data and trace element data from bulk-rocks and minerals – of this hy-normative intraplate alkalic suite – provide evidence based on crystal fractionation and punctuated melt extraction for an alternative model.

In bulk rocks observed major and trace element fractionation trends can be reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) at oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

The results of our MELTS models are in agreement with experimental studies, and indicate a fractionation generated compositional gap where trachytic liquid ( 62 – 64 wt. % SiO2 ) has been extracted after the melt has reached a crystallinity of 65% – 70 %.

The fractionated assemblage, of:

– clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – plagioclase; – magnetite; and, – apatite.

All [ of the aforementioned ] are left in a mafic cumulate residue ( 44 – 46 wt. % SiO2 ).

Calculated values of specific trace and minor elements ( Sr [ Strontium ], Cr [ Chromium ], P [ Phosphorus ] ) from a theoretical cumulate are consistent with measured concentrations from cumulate xenoliths. ‘ Compositional trends from individual mineral analysis are also supportive of fractional crystallization, but illustrate a disrupted ‘liquid line of decent for each mineral phase.

Olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions progressively decrease in Mg [ Magnesium ] concentration ( Fo83-42 ) in basaltic [ magma ] melts and shows high Fe [ Iron ] concentration in trachytic melts ( Fo5-10 ).

Clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] analyses also displays higher Fe [ Iron ] / Mg [ Magnesium ] ratios in more evolved rocks.

Ternary feldspar [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions shift from plagioclase ( An84-56 ) in basalt to alkali feldspar ( Or8-65Ab53-33An39-2 ) [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] in trachyte, but also lack the intermediate compositions.

On the other hand, analysis of mafic cumulate xenoliths reflect more evolved mineral compositions – towards the rim than volcanic equivalents – and complete observed fractionation trends.

In summary, our results indicate that these compositional gaps formed from punctuated melt extraction within an optimal crystal fraction window ( 60% – 70 % crystallinity ).


– – – –


Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: October 1996

Title: The Aurora volcanic field, California-Nevada: oxygen fugacity constraints on the development of andesitic magma

Authors: Lange, R. A.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.


AA ( Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ); AB ( Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ).

Publication: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Volume 125, Issue 2/3, pp. 167-185 (1996). (CoMP Homepage)   Origin: SPRINGER

DOI: 10.1007/s004100050214

Bibliographic Code: 1996CoMP..125..167L


The Aurora volcanic field, located along the northeastern margin of Mono Lake in the Western Great Basin, has erupted a diverse suite of high-K and shoshonitic lava types, with 48 to 76 wt. % SiO2, over the last 3,600,000 million years.

There is no correlation between the age and composition of the lavas.

Three-quarters of the volcanic field consists of evolved ( < 4 wt. % MgO ) basaltic andesite and andesite lava cones and flows, the majority of which contain sparse, euhedral phenocrysts that are normally zoned; there is no evidence of mixed, hybrid magmas.

The average eruption rate over this time period was ˜200 m3/km2/year, which is typical of continental arcs and an order of magnitude lower than that for the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

All of the Aurora lavas display a trace-element signature common to subduction-related magmas, as exemplified by Ba [ Barium ] / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios between 52 and 151.

Pre-eruptive water contents ranged from 1.5 wt. % in plagioclase – rich two-pyroxene andesites to ˜6 wt. % in a single hornblende lamprophyre and several biotite-hornblende andesites.

Calculated oxygen fugacities fall within 0.4 and + 2.4 log units of the Ni-NiO [ Nickel and Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

The Aurora potassic suite, follows a classic calc-alkaline trend in a plot of FeOT / MgO vs. SiO2 and displays linear decreasing trends in FeOT and TiO2 with SiO2 content, suggesting a prominent role for Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides during differentiation.

However, development of the calc-alkaline trend – through fractional crystallization of titanomagnetite – would have caused the residual liquid to become so depleted in ferric iron that its oxygen fugacity would have fallen several log units below that of the Ni [ Nickel ] – NiO [ Nickel – Oxygen ] buffer.

Nor can fractionation of hornblende be invoked, since it has the same effect – as titanomagnetite – in depleting the residual liquid in ferric iron, together with a thermal stability limit that is lower than the eruption temperatures of several andesites ( ˜1040 1080°C ; derived from two-pyroxene thermometry ).

Unless some progressive oxidation process occurs, fractionation of titanomagnetite – or hornblende – cannot explain a calc-alkaline trend in which all erupted lavas have oxygen fugacites ≥ the Ni-NiO [ Nickel – Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

In contrast to fractional crystallization, closed system equilibrium crystallization will produce residual liquids with an oxygen fugacity that is similar to that of the initial melt.

However, the eruption of nearly aphryic lavas argues against tapping from a magma chamber during equilibrium crystallization, a process that requires crystals to remain in contact with the liquid.

A preferred model involves the accumulation of basaltic magmas at the mantle crust interface, which solidify and are later remelted during repeated intrusion of basalt.

As an end – member case, closed – system equilibrium crystallization of a basalt, followed by equilibrium partial melting of the gabbro will produce a calc-alkaline evolved liquid ( namely, high SiO2 [ Silicon-Oxygen / Oxide ] and low FeOT / MgO ) with a relative f O 2 ( corrected for the effect of changing temperature ) that is similar to that of the initial basalt.

Differentiation of the Aurora magmas by repeated partial melting of previous underplates in the lower crust, rather than by crystal fractionation in large stable magma chambers, is consistent with the low eruption rate at the Aurora volcanic field.


– – – –

While the aforementioned information material concludes the introductory portion of Part 1 in this preliminary report, more easily understood materialize is intended to be documented in Part 2 through Part 5 ( previewed below ):

Part 2, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 ), is intended to focus on new ‘methods of capturing’ natural essence High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 3, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘discoveries of properties’ from captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 4, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘applied theories’ of natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ); and,

Part 5, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘transports’ having captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ).


Submitted for review and commentary by,


Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com



NonReferenceable Objects ( NRO )

[ PHOTO #1 ( above ): U.S. Navy missile launched from Pacific Ocean undersea channel dugout cliff holes near Santa Catalina island November 8, 2010, or as officials claimed it was only a passenger airline jetstream from Hawaii? ( click to enlarge ) ]

[ PHOTO #2 ( above ): U.S. Navy missile launched from Pacific Ocean undersea channel dugout cliff holes near Santa Catalina island November 8, 2010, or as officials claimed it was only a passenger airline jetstream from Hawaii? ( click to enlarge ) ]

[ PHOTO ( above ): U.S. Navy missile launched from Pacific Ocean undersea channel dugout cliff holes near Santa Catalina island November 8, 2010, or as officials claimed it was only a passenger airline jetstream from Hawaii? ( click to enlarge ) ]

NonReferenceable Objects ( NRO )
Harvesting Extra-Superconductive Magnetic Element Properties
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

December 7, 2011 16:00:42 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: November 22, 2010 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles, San Nicholas Island – December 7, 2011 – Depends on how one looks at it, but amongst southern California islands, Santa Catalina rests about 23-miles offshore where the deadly Pacific Ocean channel is deeper than Mount Everest is high.

This Pacific Ocean channel is also home for the world’s largest Great White shark species, and for decades – according to some southern Cailifornia residents – Santa Catalina island is suspected of harboring offshore resident extraterrestrial aliens ( also known as ) ‘non-referenceable aliens’ caught with Unidentified Submersible Objects ( USO ), Unidentified Flying Objects ( UFO ), and /or Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ) diving in and out of this sea passageway to their suspected deep sea base.

While there has been no mention of what these extraterrestrial aliens might be doing underwater, a few believe there is a distinct – although remote – possibility they [ nonreferenceable biological entities ] may be utilizing their Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ) interalia Unidentified Submersible Objects ( USO ) to harvest a planet Earth natural resource ’super-magnetic fluid’ easily removed by them from ultra-deep sea volcano molten minerals they then only extract the super-magnetic properties therefrom, afterwhich they jetison the remaining molten lava.

While that may be too unbelieveable you are urged to pause before making any final determinations about this report because the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) Ocean Scienes and Technology ( OST ) department in the ultra-deep sea below the Pacific Ocean, far west of the California island of Santa Catalina, is right on target with what some believe to be aliens from outer space reaches beyone the Earth.

The 2007 New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire ( NZASRoF or NZASRF ) Mariana Trench expedition using the AUV ( Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ) ABE ( Autonomous Benthic Explorer ) was assigned to detail map the ultra-deep sea Brothers volcano, a rhyodacite ( silicious ) explosive volcano more than 2,600 feet ( 800-meters ) above its surrounding deep-sea floor to its caldera rim located 1-mile ( 1,500 meters ) beneath the surface of the Pacific Ocean where it erupted with so much explosive force that it carried carried volatile energy and volume partially emptying its ‘magma chamber’ where its collapsed caldera area measures 1.6 nautical miles ( 3-kilometers ) by ( x ) 2.2 nm ( 4-kilometers ) to a depth of 300 meters below the volcano rim.

Brothers Volcano, however has more to offer out-of the ultra-deep Pacific Ocean where its ‘large magnetic anomalies’ register many hundreds of nano-Teslas, a unit of magnetic field strength amplitudes from its volcanic lava, from nearby just southeast where ‘several volcanic domes’ ( ‘slightly less explosive’ than Brothers major caldera was ) that are ‘younger’ and ‘larger volcanic lava bodies’ associated with ‘greater magnetic anomalies’ expectedly holding a ‘strong magnetic anomaly signature’.

During this expedition, as is the case on many traditional marine geophysical surveys, a Remote Vehicle ( R/V ) Sonne will ‘tow’ ( from the sea surface ) a magnetometer ( dipped into but not far below the surface of the sea where it is dragged along to roughly measure ‘magnetic field amplitudes’ far above buried volcano lava domes revealing ‘magnetic anomaly surveying’ to ‘identify recent lava flows’, however Brothers volcano nearby domes in the southeast Pacific Ocean lay 1,500 to 2,500 meters beneath any surface tow magnetometer that will only provide a ‘very broad kilometer scale’ reading of ‘magnetic anomaly variations’ but not readings like anything positioned near the ‘actual volcanic structure’ so, for a much higher resolution of magnetic anomaly variables, a more precise ‘magnetic anomaly information’ survey can be performed with the Autonomous Benthic Explorer ( ABE ), an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ( AUV ), that can perform a series of ultra-deep sea dives and flights ( 50 meters above the volcano domes ) following parallel lines while collecting ‘magnetic anomaly measurements’ from a mounted onboard ‘fluxgate magnetometer’ ( the size of a hand palm ) performing swath fly-overs collecting ‘bathymetry’, ‘conductivity’, ‘temperature’, and ‘chemical’ measurement instrument readings used to estimate ‘magnetization of the volcano’ correlated with what is seen on bathymetry and ‘volcanic flow unit identification images.

The Brothers Volcano caldera area sees ‘geothermal vents’ of lava spewing a residual ‘high temperature demagnetization fluid’ that ‘alters magnetic chemistry’ of ‘titanomagnetite’, a natural super-magnetic mineral, however after this ‘geothermal alteration’ even titanomagnetite is rendered far less magnetic. This ‘geographic high-temperature demagnetizing fluid alteration’ can be found even within ‘magnetic dead zones’ where both ‘active’ and ‘inactive’ as well as ‘young’ an ‘old’ lava vent sites exist.

On land surfaces, studies of similar collapsed volcano calderas ( depressions ) suggest calderas were filled with formed deposits of a pyroclastic low-density vesicular material.

References provided, click on: and to begin learning more.

Who says that all intelligent biological entities, unknown to us, are not of this world but only from outer space? We already know that the ultra-deep sea holds biological entities foreign to us, however what we ‘do not know’ is the extent of ultra-deep sea biological entity spieces. Does the simply fact that ‘we do not know about all of them’ render them ‘aliens’ on Earth? No. What if there are ‘advanced biological entities’ of the ultra-deep sea? What if these creatures were on Earth before us? If that proves to be the case, then all human beings could very well be new ’aliens’ on Earth. Keyword, being, ‘new’ so just how new makes a ‘new alien’ on Earth?

In 1989, a large Unidentified Submersible Object ( USO ) was discovered floating on the surface of the Pacific Ocean, according to eyewitnesses  aboard an ocean going vessel that tracked the UFO / USO underwater on sonar.

This same USO, was witnessed releasing what appeared to be several smaller Unidentified Submersible Objects ( USO ), submerged on a heading southwest beyond Santa Catalina island where it disappeared off sonar tracking. Did this USO travel underwater to the Mariana Trench or, as yet to be identified, seabase location?

On June 14, 1992 more than two-hundred ( 200 ) Unidentified Flying Objects ( UFO ) interalia Unidentified Submersible Objects ( USO ) were witnessed by at least twenty-seven ( 27 ) residents of Los Angeles County in southern California, according to MUFON ( Los Angeles, California ) chapter UFO / USO researcher Preston Dennett.

These UFO / USO Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ), however were not ’hovering in the sky’ but ‘rising-up out-of the Pacific Ocean channel near Santa Catalina island’ west of Santa Monica, California, according to resident witnesses positioned less than 10-miles east in the foothills of Los Angeles.

These two-hundred ( 200 ) UFO / USO  crafts, that came out-of the Santa Catalina island channel of the Pacific Ocean for several seconds, gathered into several cluster formation ( small squadrons ) before each set shot-off upward like missiles into southwest sky beyond southern California’s Santa Catalina island.

Were these two-hundred ( 200 ) Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ), which were all headed southwest by air in the same direction as the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, or were they travelling far beyond it and the atmosphere of Earth?

Worried local residents – including those from Santa Monica, California to as far south as Malibu, California – filed UFO / USO eyewitness reports by telephone with switchboard operators of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department ( LASO ), Santa Monica Police Department ( SMPD ) as well as with other officials.

One ( 1 ) caller, who was recorded by a law enforcement operator, sounded hesitant perhaps, embarrassed, but nevertheless concerned enough to report the unidentifiable objects he had just witnessed.

The wealth of these eyewitness local resident report descriptions were fed by local officials to officials of the federal United States government, amongst which included the U.S. Coast Guard ( USCG ) that reportedly refused to honor a request to search the Pacific Ocean area near Catalina island for any trace remnant discharges any of the two-hundred ( 200 )  UFOs / USOs may have left or jetisoned.

On December 25, 2004 in southern California adjacent to Santa Catalina island the Long Beach Police Department ( LBPD ) had their own mid-air encounter with a UFO / USO officially recorded on their police helicopter Forward Looking Infra-Red ( FLIR ) camera ( see video below ):

During July 2009 in Santa Monica, California another UFO / USO – resembling the same UFO / USO encounter with the Long Beach Police Department helicopter ( video above ) – was filmed in color from the coastal City of Santa Monica, California just off the westcoast Pacific Ocean channel near Santa Catalina island ( see video below ):

On November 8, 2010 another Unidentified Flying Object ( UFO ) and / or Unidentified Submersible Object ( USO ) was sighted in southern California near Santa Catalina island witnessed it while filming it from aboard a southern California City of Los Angeles television ( KCBS TV ) news station helicopter ( see video below ):

The UFO / USO filmed ( above ) by the news station helicopter news was denied by ‘all’ official United States federal government agencies claiming they had no knowledge if it and had nothing to do with the Unidentified Flying Object ( UFO ) sighted.

Interestingly, after U.S. federal officials interviewed the KCBS TV news station helicopter reporter, the same reporter then disavowed what he previously reported by agreeing with U.S. federal officials that what he had seen filmed were just ice crystals glistening off a ‘small airplane’ travelling into the horizon during sunset.

Did this KCBS-TV news reporter undergo U.S. federal government official embedding? Why would the KCBS-TV news reporter change what he previously witnessed and then reported to the greater southern California Los Angeles news area public?

What about the KCBS-TV news helicopter video ( above )?

Listen very carefully to precisely what the news helicopter reporter describes ( below ) in the most ‘general of terms’:

Was the KCBS-TV Sky news helicopter video ‘interrupted’ or ‘earlier replaced’ by ‘decoy film footage’ to ‘disguise what was really being witnessed’ to ‘match general descriptions’ reported the KCBS-TV Sky 2 helicopter news reporter?

Watch what former U.S. federal government Department of Defense ( DoD ) military officials whom have decades of experience with what was sighted off the coast of southern California near Catalina island ( below ):

Now compare what civilian reporters said to agree with ‘official U.S. government cover story lines’ the later reported ( below ):

If the UFO / USO video was implanted or switched, might it have appeared more like the films ( further above )? One may no longer wonder what was actually seen coming out-of the Pacific Ocean near Santa Catalina island. Then again, the UFO / USO may have originated near another southern California island, San Nicholas island ( see video below ).


The U.S. National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ) may have a purposeful misnomer embedded within its initials. Historical research proves that the U.S. federal government entity charged with who “owns the night” refers to Unidentified Flying Objects ( UFO ) as being ‘objects’ of “Non-Reference” or Non-Refrerencable Objects ( NRO ).

What if the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ) actually stands for the U.S. Non-Referenceables Office ( NRO ) charged with reconnaissance over Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ) “Who Rule The Night?” Learn a little something more about U.S. federal government clearance levels and what surrounds the NRO ( video below ):

Now, if those following this report are ‘thoroughly convinced’ and ‘absolutely sure’ that what is being discussed here has being cleverly twisted around into something less than factual, the following ( below ) serious speach given by the recently deceased former Minister of Defense for Canada may come to some as a rather shocking surprise:

The following five ( 5 ) color video mini-series ( below ) introduces Unidentied Submersible Objects ( USO ) also known as Non-Referenceable Objects ( NRO ):

The Truth Is Out There Amidst The Abyss Below

Far west of southern California islands, in the Pacific Ocean, lays the Marianna Trench where on May 24, 2009 an ultra-deep sea discovery project [ ] documented videos of ’self-illuminating ultra-deep sea creatures’ using no ’artificial light’ but a ‘natural bioluminescent process’ known as ‘counterillumination’, which is really something one needs to ’see to believe’ ( below ):

While the 2009 video ( above ) provides documented factual understandings of evidence for what truly exists ( i.e. bioluminescent sea creatures ) in the ultra-deep sea, another video clip ( below ) that was filmed twenty ( 20 ) years earlier in 1988 provided displays of bioluminescent sea creatures in the ultra-deep sea science-fiction motion picture film “The Abyss.” Perhaps, in another 20-years ( more or less ) in the future, this insight may allow the public to even better fathom and understanding what lies in the ultra-deep sea further ( below):

Now equipped with a new set of eyes, one wishing to go even deeper might research before consulting government on NonReferenceable Objects ( NRO ) claimed nonexistent for the public.


Submitted for review and commentary by,


Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com




Fireball Special Projects Program

Fireball Objects

Fireball Special Projects Program
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

August 16, 2011 12:30:08 ( PST ) Updated ( Published: April 11, 2011 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – August 16, 2011 – When a brilliant object appears twinkles while hanging motionless like a star against a darkened sky, but is ‘not a star’, what is it?

Between 2010 and 2011, residents throughout South Bay cities surrounding Los Angeles in southern California have been trying to figure out what keeps appears to them like an early dark morning star, but is not.

What’s odd about this object’s brilliance is that this ‘bright white light shines from the opposite side of the object facing the horizon where the early morning Sun rises later in the day. The only way the Sun could illuminate the object would be that the object would either have to be ‘transparent’ or equipped with the new advanced military defense ‘light reflection projection technology’ ( LRP ) also known as “Advanced Stealth.”

Does this mysterious hovering object belong to the U.S. Department of Defense ( DOD ) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ), U.S. Navy ( USN ), U.S. Air Force ( USAF ), U.S. Navy National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ), or is it an Unidentified Flying Object ( UFO )?

In early January 2011 an early rising resident of Carson, California assumed the ‘flickering starlight’ he saw against the pitch black sky of early morning was simply a passenger airline with runway lights on its approach to Los Angeles International Airport not far away, but a Torrance, California resident claimed he had been outside sipping on a coffee for almost 2-hours and the starlight object had ‘not moved’ from its position in the darkened sky so, he believed the starlight object was just a ‘star’ and that it would disappear when the Sun rose. Both residents were wrong because as the Sun rose the brilliant starlight remained where it had been positioned in the darkened sky for hours.

One businessman, stepping from his car in a West Carson, California McDonald’s fast food parking lot walked over to see what everyone was looking up at ( the starlight object ) in the early morning darkened sky, and overheard amongst a small crowd of people one woman say, “Maybe it’s a UFO!”

Smiling as though he would settle the dispute he asked, “Don’t you people ever read the newspaper around here? That’s just the U.S. Department of Defense ‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicle’ ( UAV ) assigned to keep watch over the Port of Los Angeles from terrorist attacks.”

A homeless man, sitting nearby drinking his cup of coffee, looked at the businessman and asked, “Does that ‘look’ like any UAV or balloon you ever saw before? The businessman shook his head in a negative reply, whereupon the homeless man further enquired, “Then ‘why’ hasn’t that object moved in the sky for over 2-hours now?”

The businessman, saying nothing further in reply, turned away and went inside to get his early morning McDonald’s breakfast.

Although few bother looking up around at darkened skies, or for that matter after daybreak, there are now more people – especially in southern California – beginning to look up and study what’s hovering overhead them. Are residents expecting to see something new or becoming paranoid after watching so many television news broadcasts about the rash of UFO sightings and lights all over the world?

One man pulled-up in a minivan with Virginia license plates for his early morning breakfast, but also strolled over to where the commotion was going on at whereupon after observing it for about a minute smiled and said, “Heck, we got one of those over in Charlottesville. Shows up like clockwork, every night, ’round 8:00 p.m.,” and then walked away toward his breakfast shaking his head while mumbling, “Durn government spooks – spyin’ on us everywhere!”

As the Virginian left with his McDonald’s bagged breakfast in-hand, he stopped at the table outside to share some of his first-hand experiences with ‘fireballs’ and other ‘strange lights’ in the sky – some that look like ‘aircraft landing lights’ twinkling off in the ‘low horizon distance’ and similar lights appearing like ‘real bright stars’ that suddenly disappear a short time later.

He reported that whatever this mysterious Virginia sighting really ‘was’, there was no public information detailing its ‘flight path trajectory’ or where it landed – and it ‘did land’! In fact, it exploded, according to our Green County Record newspaper in Stanardsville, Virginia spoke to an eyewitness named Judy Kilgus who gave her own experience about what happened just outside a farm neighborhood 7-Eleven convenience store.

Further research, into the Virginian’s story, found the following details:

The 7-Eleven ( store number 21482 ) was located at 1199 29th Infantry Division Memorial Highway ( also known as ) U.S. Route 29 ( also known as ) North Seminole Trail in Madison, Virginia 22727-0024 where Judy Kilgus additionally experienced strange pungent aromatics she identified as an “eerie odor” lingering in the night air after the unidentified flying object ( UFO ) – resembling a “fireball” – crash landed. ( See Newspaper Report – Immediately Below )


– –

Source: GREENE COUNTY RECORD – a Medial General newspaper – ( Stanardsville, Virginia, USA )

Experts Offer Guesses On Mysterious Fire Ball Sighting
by, April Taylor – Greene County Record Reporter

April 2, 2009

VIRGINIA, Stanardsville – April 2, 2009 – Judy Kilgus of Stanardsville was driving on [ Virginia, U.S. ] Route 522 [ Sperryville Pike ] near Culpeper [ Virginia ] Sunday [ March 29, 2009 ] night when she saw what she says looked like a burning ball of fire falling from the sky.

“It was me, my mother and one of my brothers, and we were on our way back from Salem [ Virginia ],” Kilgus recalled. She said they were about 3-miles out of Culpeper ( Virginia ] when the “ball” came shooting across ( the sky ).

“At first it gave the appearance of a shooting ‘star’,  and then it was just huge,” she said continuing, This was not like some little light. The colors were brilliant and it was ‘flickering’. It was falling and looked as if it was burning like a ball of fire – reddish with the hint of a green tint.  It was frightening.”

Kilgus said that once the mysterious thing fell, “There was a big light, like an explosion. I said to my mom, ‘Oh, my gosh, it hit something’. I had never seen anything like it. It was traveling very fast.”

Kilgus said she stopped at the 7-Eleven in Madison [ Virginia ], about 15-miles or-so from where she saw the object, and then noticed an “eerie” odor when she got out of her car. She says she’s not sure if the smell is related to what she saw earlier.

Regardless, Kilgus is ‘not the only one who witnessed’ a strange “ball of fire” and big boom that night.

Reports of a “bright light,” and in some places an ‘explosion like sound’, poured into law enforcement offices across eastern Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina on Sunday night [ March 29, 2009 ].

“The phone is ringing off the hook,“ said meteorologist Sonia Mark at the U.S. National Weather Service ( NWS ) Wakefield station.

All of the reports dealt with incidents that occurred ‘about’ 9:45 p.m.

Several calls came to Richmond International Airport, but [ airport ] tower personnel did not see anything unusual related to aircraft, airport spokesman Troy Bell said.

It could have been caused by a ‘meteor’, or even a falling part from a Russia ‘spacecraft’, experts said earlier this week.

“I know it’s one of the two,” said Geoff Chester, an astronomer and public relations officer with the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. “I just can’t tell you definitively’ which one it actually was.” Geoff Chester suggested that a falling Russian booster rocket caused the hub-bub. The booster – a steel cylinder about 25-feet long and 8-feet wide – was part of the Soyuz spacecraft launched Thursday on a mission to the International Space Station [ ISS / MIR ]. The booster was expected to fall toward Earth on a path headed ‘East’ that would have taken it across the Chesapeake Bay [ eastern-most eastcoast ] region Sunday night, Chester said. The booster would have burned in the friction of Earth’s atmosphere and, as it slowed below the speed of sound, it would have released energy that caused a sonic boom, Chester said. “My feeling is this is what people actually saw,” Chester said.

Stefan Bocchino, a spokesman for the U.S. Joint Space Operations Center [ JSOC ] at Vandenberg Air Force Base [ VAFB ] in California, said experts there [ in California ] do ‘not think the light was caused by a manmade object’.

Joint Space Operations Center tracks manmade objects that enter the atmosphere.

U.S. National Weather Service ( NWS ) has ‘ruled out any weather related cause’.

Other experts said the ‘light’ and ‘boom’ sound like the work of a meteor.

Meteors are bits of space rock or gravel that burn and create light when they hit the atmosphere.

“Some very bright ones are known to explode,” creating a sound, said Phillip Ianna, a professor emeritus of astronomy at the University of Virginia.

Meteors typically burn up in the atmosphere. Much ‘less often’, a small piece of the rock will hit Earth.

Steve Chesley, an astronomer with NASA [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ] said the Sunday [ March 29, 2009 ] phenomena could be the work of a meteor the size of a ‘television set’ or ‘small car’. “These kinds of things hit the [ atmosphere ] once a month,” Chesley said. They usually fall over water or less populated areas and attract less attention. NASA doesn’t track such small objects, Chesley said, and focuses instead on big ones – ‘space rocks half the length of a football field or more’ – that are headed toward Earth. “It’s the big ones we’re worried about, and we need to find them decades in advance,” Chesley said.

The object on Sunday [ March 29, 2009 ] had to be ‘unusually bright’ to be ‘seen in urban areas’ where ‘artificial lights drown out’ most celestial objects, said David Hagan, a staff scientist with the Science Museum of Virginia.

At Record [ Greene County Record ] press time, on Tuesday, ‘experts were still offering various guesses’ as to ‘what the occurrence could have been’.

“One thing’s for sure,” says Kilgus, “It’s something I won’t soon forget. I was glad I saw ‘whatever it was’, but I kind-of ‘wonder what in the world is going on’,” she said. “I thought maybe it was a meteor, but whatever it was, it was ‘strange’.”

Article Reference:

– – – –

Now, the State of Virginia is infamous for its street and highway names – changing names – within a few miles of each other, making instant headaches for any outsider trying to provide location directions so, as close as can be determined – extrapolated from the newspaper description of the eyewitness ( Judy Kilgus ) account – Google Maps provides a “car” route that coincides with eyewitness Judy Kilgus’ claim she was “3-miles” outside “Culpepper, Virginia” on “Route 522″ ( also known as ) “Sperryville Pike” in “Salem, Virginia.” Interestingly, outsiders would ‘not know’ there are actually ‘two ( 2 ) towns’ named “Salem” in Virginia!

The particular town of “Salem, Virginia” the eyewitness ( Judy Kilgus ) mentions near “Culpepper, Virginia” and ‘that’ “Salem, Virginia” is ‘not easy to locate online’ at Google Maps.

After some ‘prodding’, Google Maps will eventually map ‘from’ “13300 Hunts Shade Drive, Salem, VA” providing its most direct route that quickly exits ( just outside Salem, Virginia ) off “U.S. Route 522″ ( also known as ) “Sperryville Pike” but turns onto “Norman Road” ( also known as ) “Hudson Mill Road” ( also known as ) “Reva Road” that leads to ‘yet another alias highway name’ for “U.S. Route 29″ – an address at 1199 on “29th Infantry Division Memorial Highway” in Madison, VA 22727 ( the 7-Eleven store ) where eyewitness Judy Kilgus claimed detecting a suspicious “eerie odor” outside that particular “7-Eleven” store ( Madison, Virginia ) on “U.S. Route 29.”

That aforementioned description explains why it’s no surprise as to ‘why’ or ‘how’ so many State of Virginia unidentified flying object ( UFO ) flightpath reports can so easily hide ‘landing site locations’ from much of the public observing them there.

The Green County Record newspaper account from eyewitness Judy Kilgus does not ‘detail the location’ ( e.g. NorthEast to SouthWest, etc. ) of where she was at 9:44 p.m. during the UFO fireball sighting.

Was Kilgus already traveling from Salem, Virginia – going through Madison, Virginia ( 16-miles from Salem, Virginia ) – enroute to her home ( Stanardsville, Virginia )?

Did she sight, on Sunday March 29, 2009 at 9:44 p.m., the UFO fireball ‘while she was still in Salem, Virginia’?

Did her sighting, ‘prompt her to leave’ Salem, Virginia earlier than she had planned, which placed her driving in a direction of her ‘home’ ( Stanardsville, Virginia )? If so, did the UFO sighting crash in the direction of where she resided ( Stanardsville, Virginia )?

Without a UFO ‘flightpath trajectory’ provided ( e.g. NorthEast to SouthWest, etc. ) information about this UFO fireball sighting, then perhaps only U.S. Fish & Game or U.S. Forest Service government officials located the UFO fireball landing / crash site. If so, it has undoubtedly been covered-up by now.

Was the March 29, 2009 9:44 p.m. central Virginia UFO fireball sighting really only just a “meteor” that ‘U.S. Space Command ( SPACOM ) government experts claim they were ‘unable to track’? What if it was some king of a rocket or missile launched from another location within the United States?

Could the sighting have been one of many U.S. Air Force Special Programs project spacecraft undergoing ‘classified flight tests’ for the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) that is conducted primarily by the U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ) National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO )?

Were Virginians used as an unsuspecting audience for part of the test flight for the new U.S. Department Of Defense ( DoD ), U.S. Navy, National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ) new ‘stealth starlight surveillance dirigible’ – a lighter-than-air vessel believed designed from the 1990 patented Aereon lighter than airship [ similar in design to that of the NASA VentureStar, X-31 and X-33 spaceplanes  [ Image References: ] – that may emit what is tantamount to ‘artificially produced starlight’; flickering akin to ‘aircraft landing lights’ on an aircraft the public would only suspect appears about ready to land but doesn’t?

May even more mysteries continue hiding amidst ‘seemingly peaceful night skies’ where reconnaissance and other spacecraft are now capable of being missioned to commence activation of ‘classified artificial landing strategies’ cleverly resembling a ‘fireball meteor flight’ – complete with a firework flares jettisoned to additionally resemble ‘meteor crash explosions’ too?

Research into conflicting news report information suggests that one ( 1 ) UFO fireball incident may have actually been confused with another UFO fireball on the same date and around the same time of night, a ‘dual event’ in Virginia.

One ( 1 ) eyewitness report – in the central Virginia geographic region – may have been mixed with ‘another press report’ using its central Virginia eyewitness interview in-conjunction with another news wire service report.

Simultaneous report sightings along the eastern seaboard of the United States from up and down the Atlantic Ocean coastline as far south North Carolina ( far northeast ), Virginia ( far east ) and Maryland ( far east ) in the region of the Chesapeake Bay as being the ‘same’ as what was seen in Madison, Virginia as reported by the Stanardsville, Virginia newspaper?

A few miles south of eyewitness Judy Kilgus UFO sighting near the 7-Eleven store ( Madison, Virginia ), also on “U.S. Route 29″ ( also known as ) “South Seminole Trail” at the east corner where 2055 Boulders Road ( Albemarle County ) sees the U.S. National Ground Intelligence Center ( NGIC ).

Adjacent to NGIC ( National Ground Intelligence Center ) is a new construction site for the new U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency ( DIA ) complex buildings as well.

Just a few miles further south – again on “South Seminole Trail” ( Virginia U.S. Route 29 ) – is the NORTHRUP-GRUMMAN Sperry Marine Division where a classified secret-sensitive multi-story windowless bricked-up test site building is perched behind an innocent looking single-story red brick office building – also on “South Seminole Trail” (aka) “U.S. Route 29″ (aka) “Emmett Road” where all these spooky government offices are popping up all around Charlottesville, Virginia.


A few miles further north on the west side of “South Seminole Trail” ( Virginia U.S. Route 29 ) – is the old single story red brick face building that the other three ( 3 ) sides are painted white complete with pyramid shaped surveillance cameras mounted high-up on the building, and while it only ‘appears vacant’ is a honeycombed-out floor-plan inside, shared by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency annex with the DIEBOLD CORPORATION, but you’d never know it to drive by the facility or drive up onto the terraced hill it sits atop and drive around the building either because you’ll only see a few vehicles outside where everyone enters through the north facing single glass door where everything appears just normal. Again, just a few miles north of this facility is the U.S. National Ground Intelligence Center ( NGIC ) buildings on the east side of Seminole Trail ( Virginia State Highway 29 ) about 95-miles southwest of Washington, D.C.

In any event, loud noise explosions – especially when they are conducted over U.S. population areas – should have provided the public with more concrete information, especially what it hit during its crash landing.
Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com