Secret HFSE Properties Part 1

[ PHOTO ( above ): HFSE Super-Conducting Electro-Magnetic Pyroclastic Magma – Iceland volcano eruption ( click image to enlarge ) ]

Secret HFSE Properties – Part 1
Emerging Superconducting Magnetic Element Properties
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

December 1, 2011 16:08: 42 (PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: December 9, 2010 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – December 1, 2011 – In 1961, BELL LABORATORIES ( USA ) physicist Eugene Kunzler and co-workers discovered that niobium–tin continued exhibition of superconductivity while in the presence of strong electric currents and magnetic fields, which made niobium-tin the first [ 1st ] material used to support High Field Strength ( HFS ) electrical currents and magnetic field strengths necessary for use in high-power electro-magnets and electrical power machines.

20-years later, the aforementioned discovery allowed production of niobium doped metallic wire wrapped into multi-strand form cables wound into coils creating powerful electro-magnetic force applications seen in particle accelerators, particle detectors, and rotating machines.

High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) holds far greater use from such properties than most professionals and the public realize so, before advancing any further on this subject, a basic foundation of understanding on such materials, elements and their valuable properties must be realized about this ‘extremely old Earth energy resource’, ‘how to harvest it ( from its original molten state )’, ‘how to capture and contain its volatile properties’, and then ‘transform it into applications’ for transportation – ‘yet unrealized factual knowledge’ on this extremely low-cost extremely powerful high-energy resource.

Niobium ( Nb ) –

[ photo ( above ): Niobium ( .9995 fine) crystals ( click to enlarge ) ]

Titanmagnetite (aka) Titanomagnetite mineral, under Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrography ( XRS ), holds detected high measurements [ from 350 ppm ( parts per million ) up to 1,000 ppm ] of the geochemical High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium [ Nb ].

‘Where’ does such a ‘mineral’ ( titanmagnetite ) ‘element’ ( niobium ) originate? Volcanic magma.

‘Where’ are specific locations holding volcanic magma Niobium element properties that possess even ’higher field strength’ magnetics – ‘at least’ six ( 6 ) times greater? The Mariana Trench or other ultra-deep sea continental plate arc locations where volcanoes exist either ‘quite active’ or ‘somewhat dormant’.

Readers may begin to awaken from any slumber when they realize that ultra-deep sea ground trench ( arc ) volcano magma, naturally located nearer to the planet Earth molten liquid superconducting magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) ’core’, sees element properties of Niobium absorbing far purer forms of High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) magnetic properties while within its ‘natural molten liquid state’. Interestingly, nowhere else ‘above ultra-deep sea Earth elevations’ obtain more natural energy power.

How can such a volatile molten resource be ‘excavated’ while simultaneously being isolated from any exposure to contaminations from ‘seawater’, ‘oxygen’ or other environmentals to harness high-energy properties?

The molten material would  additionally have to be placed into a likewise uncontaminated ‘ultra-clean chamber’, whereupon after transport, ’high-energy properties extraction’ must undergo a ‘seamless application process’ for utilization.

What type of use? More basic fundamentals must be initially understood so, let’s begin by taking a look at what’s bubbling out of ultra-deep sea volcano vents and instantly becoming contaminated by seawater ( below ):

[ photo ( above ): Ultra-Deep Sea Trench Arc Volcanic Magma Vent ( click to enlarge ) ]

Preliminary report Part 1 ( herein ) displays a photograph of an above-ground volcano eruption in Iceland experiencing plenty of superconducting High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) property fireworks, however far too little information is ever realized by the public about what ultra-deep sea trench arc volcano magmatic material element properties hold ‘naturally’ as primary key elements to a variety of other advancements.

Volcanic magma, in later stage differentiation, sees Niobium [ Nb ] and Titanium [ Ti ] ratios ‘increase’ five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times above normal ( dry magma melts ).

To comprehend this, along with the importance of harnessing natural Earth high-energy magnetic properties, a basic understanding must be reached from what science, physics and astrophysics indications always seem to avoid for the public.

The purpose of this preliminary report Part 1 is to bring rare knowledge into better public understanding while stimulating solution-minded professionals wishing more done.

Have scientists, physicists, and astrophysicists ‘missed some major solution’ in their discoveries? Are portions of certain discoveries ‘kept quite’ considering serious repercussions? While highly doubtful that any small discovery having a major impact missed any application outlook, ramifications nevertheless are considered by professionals on whether a socio-economic impact will allowed to be proven helpful or otherwise.

Good advice may be to buckle your seatbelt because you are about to venture into some information few have ever known about. Whether most of those reading this may be able to absorb this information ( below ) now, or later, it is suspected that after much easier reading comes in Part 2 through Part 5, most will probably refer back to Part 1 ( herein ).

– – – –

Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 )

Introduction –

High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )


Niobium enrichment, is possible, using two ( 2 ) natural rock-forming minerals:

– Titanmagnetite [ 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ]; and, – Kaersutite [ 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb ( Niobium ) ].

General Information:

Rock-forming Minerals: Titanmagnetite ( element symbols: Ttn/Mag ), and Kaersutite ( Krs ). Elements [ symbols ]: Titanite ( Ttn ), Magnetite ( Mag ) Geochemical Element [ symbols ]: Niobium ( Nb )

Studies & Resolutions –

Subject: Natural High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Materials

Titanmagnetite [ Ttn/Mag ] is a natural super-magnetic mineral, that later experiences a geochemical alteration reducing its magnetic High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) properties, as it exits ultra-deep sea arc volcanic magma influenced by hydrothermal fluid seawater ( see “Findings” below ). In its natural magma state where Titanmagnetite ( Ti/Mag ) holds its 6 [ X ] times greater High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Niobium ( Nb ) than above-ground.

Niobium ( Nb ) High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) properties can be enhanced even greater by adding only one ( 1 ) mineral, Kaersutite ( Krs ).

For applications, extracting this natural combinatoric high-energy power may not easily be obtained.

Extraction Processes: Capturing Natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE )

Obtaining these properties may be resolved, however while natural initial ingress of high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluid occurences at liquid melts [ magma ] have seen amphibole-plagioclase thermometry suggests ‘fracture and grain’ boundary ‘permeability’ – with seawater derived fluids – ‘open’ over similar temperature interval, however venturing into ultra-deep sea trench arcs and then burroughing into natural state volcanic magma dome vents capturing natural essence of titanmagnetite, and then containing it for processing HFSE properties further may be difficult so, is there an alternative to this type of extraction?

Above-ground experiment observations see major trace geochemical element fractionation trends in bulk rocks and minerals reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry [ magma ] melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) with oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

[ photo ( above ): NASA Astrophysics Data System ( ADS ) ]

Preliminary Findings ( A – F  – below ) –

– – – –


[ NOTE: Titanmagnetite mineral geochemical element Niobium … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 29, Issue 8, pp.807-820

DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(65)90081-5

Bibliographic Code: 1965GeCoA..29..807H

Die verteilung des niobs in den gesteinen und mineralen der alkalibasalt-assoziation der hocheifel by, Hans Gerhard Huckenholz

Publication Date: August 1965

Abstract –

Niobium [ Nb ] contents are determined by the method of fluorescent X-ray spectrography [ FXRS ] for several rock types from the Tertiary Hocheifel volcanic province ( Western Germany ).

Alkalic olivine basalt, contains:

65 ppm Niobium [ Nb ] ( 7 samples );  69 ppm hawaiite ( 4 samples );  86 ppm mugearite ( 3 samples );  95 ppm trachyte ( 5 samples ); 77 ppm basanitoid ( 6 samples );  65 ppm ankaramite ( 2 samples ); 110 ppm hauyne-bearing alkali basalt ( 2 samples ); and,  86 ppm a monchiquite dike.

Niobium enrichment, is observed in the alkalic olivine basalt trachyte [ magma ] series where, in later stage differentiation, Nb [ Niobium ] / Ti ratio increases five [ 5 ] to six [ 6 ] times.

Alkalic olivine basalt magma, however becomes poorer [ less rich ] in niobium [ Nb ] by accumulation of:

– olivine [ 10 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ]; and, – clinopyroxene [ 20 ppm Nb ( niobium ) ].

Enrichment of niobium [ Nb ] is possible by taking-up titanmagnetite ( 350 ppm – 1000 ppm Nb [ Niobium ] ) and kaersutite ( 38 ppm – 50 ppm Nb [ niobium ] ) without olivine and clinopyroxene ( ankaramite HF 5, and the basanitoids ).

The most Nb [ Niobium ] bearing rock-forming mineral is titanmagnetite, containing 65%  to 85% niobium ( in volcanic rock ), however ground-mass clinopyroxene has contents of Niobium [ Nb ] up to 45 ppm, and feldspars have contents of Nb [ Niobium ] up to 67 ppm.


– – – –


[ NOTE: ICP-MS analysis on trace geochemical element ( Niobium, etc. ) enrichment ( 5X greater than normal ) … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: December 2008

Title: Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu – Bonin – Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya

Authors: Basu, A. R.; Ghatak, A.; Arima, M.; Srimal, N.


AA ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; ); AB ( University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, United States; ); AC ( Yokohama National University, Division of Natural and Environmental Information, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan; ); AD ( Florida International University, Department of Earth Sciences PC 344, University Park 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, Fl 33199, United States; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #V33C-2228

Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes ( 3060, 3613, 8170, 8413 ), 1036 Magma chamber processes ( 3618 ), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry ( 3620 ), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry

Bibliographic Code: 2008AGUFM.V33C2228B


In this study we attempt to contribute to the understanding of a prominent feature, namely the Nb [ Niobium ] – Ta [ Tantalum ] depletion, in arc magmatic trace element geochemistry.

Traditionally, this depletion is explained by residual mantle-wedge phases with Nb [ Niobium ] and Ta [ Tantalum ] affinities, such as titaniferous ilmenite [ Ilm ], rutile [ Rt ] or titanite [ Ttn ], or by an amphibole.

Here, we propose a mechanism – long advocated – to explain the calc-alkaline trend ( Bowen vs. Fenner ) in MgO – FeO ( total Fe ) – ( Na2O + K2O ) ternary diagram by early crystallization and separation of magnetite in ‘subduction zone magmas’ associated with ‘high oxygen’ fugacity ‘environments’.

In support of our hypothesis, we provide high-precision multiple trace element data, including the High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ), in separated magnetites and mafic mineral phases from mafic ‘magmatic enclaves’ associated with ‘tonalite suites’ of two [ 2 ] different ‘magmatic arcs’, the:

– Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone in Japan; and, – Ladakh Batholith Complex of NW Himalayas.

The Tanzawa Complex is composed of diverse rock suites with SiO2 varying from 43% – 75%, ranging from hornblende gabbro through tonalite to leuco-tonalite. The geochemical characteristics of low K – tholeiites, enrichment of Large Ion Lithophile Elements ( LILE ), and depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in rocks of this plutonic complex are similar to those observed in the volcanic rocks of the IBM arc.

The Ladakh batholith Complex is one of the granitic belts exposed north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh, representing calc-alkaline plutonism related to the subduction of the Neotethys floor in Late Cretaceous. This batholith comprises predominantly I-type granites with whole rock delta delta 18O values of 5.7-7.4 per mil, without major contribution from continental crustal material.

In separated magnetites, from five [ 5 ] gabbros of the Tanzawa tonalite-gabbro complex and from three [ 3 ] tonalitic gabbros of the Ladakh batholith, we analyzed 22 trace elements by ICP-MS, including:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Hf [ Hafnium ]; and, Zr [ Zirconium ].

In NMORB [ N Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt ] normalized plots, the trace element patterns of all the magnetites analyzed show enrichment ( 5X NMORB ), in:

Nb [ Niobium ]; Ta [ Tantalum ]; Pb [ Lead ]; Sr [ Strontium ]; and, ( 2X NMORB ), in: Zr [ Zirconium ] with characteristically high Nb [ Niobium ], Ta [ Tantalum ] and Zr[ Zirconium ] / Hf [ Hafnium ] ratios.

In contrast, the patterns show anomalously low ( less than 0.1 NMORB ), in:

La [ Lanthanum ]; Ce [ Cesium ]; Pr [ Praseodymium ]; Nd [ Neodymium ]; Sm [ Samarium ]; and, Hf [ Hafnium ] concentrations.

It is noteworthy that in the normalized trace element plot, all the magnetites show ‘high’ Nb [ Niobium ] / Ta ratios, and in contrast with high Ta / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios were observed in typical arc [ volcanic ] magmas.

These data support our hypothesis, that:

Magmatic crystallization, of Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides ( under high oxygen fugacity conditions ) during ‘initial crystallization and formation’ ( of the Izu-Bonin and Ladakh-type arc batholiths ) may be the primary cause of depletion of HFSE [ High Field Strength Elements ] in later magmatic differentiates of less mafic and more felsic granitic arc rocks.

Query Results from the ADS Database

Retrieved 1 abstracts, starting with number 1.

Total number selected: 1.


author = {{ Basu }, A.~R. and {Ghatak}, A. and { Arima }, M. and { Srimal }, N. }

title = “{ Trace Element Geochemistry including the HFSE in Magnetites of Calc-Alkaline Plutons: the Tanzawa Complex of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Ladakh Batholith Complex, NW Himalaya }”

journal = {AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts},

keywords = {1020 Composition of the continental crust, 1031 Subduction zone processes (3060, 3613, 8170, 8413), 1036 Magma chamber processes (3618), 1042 Mineral and crystal chemistry (3620), 1065 Major and trace element geochemistry},

year = 2008, month = dec, pages = { C2228+ }

ADS url = ADS note = Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System


– – – –


[ NOTE: multi-domain topographic elevation studies on magnetite [ Mag ] and hydrothermal fluid affection … ]

Publication Date: December 2007

Title: Spatial Distribution of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Mt. Barcroft Granodiorite, White Mountains, California: Implications for Arc Magmatic Processes

Authors: Michelsen, K. J.; Ferre, E. C.; Law, R. D.; Boyd, J. D.; Ernst, G. W.; de Saint-Blanquat, M.


AA ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; ); AB ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; );’ AC ( Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States ; ); AD ( Southern Illinois University, Department of Geology, Carbondale, IL 62901, United States ; ); AE ( Stanford University, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, United States ; ); AF ( Universite Paul Sabatier, LMTG, Toulouse, 31400, France ; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #T11B-0567   Origin: AGU

AGU Keywords: 1020 Composition of the continental crust, 3640 Igneous petrology, 3660 Metamorphic petrology, 8104 Continental margins: convergent, 8170 Subduction zone processes ( 1031, 3060, 3613, 8413 )

Bibliographic Code: 2007AGUFM.T11B0567M


The petrographic or chemical zonation of plutons, has been widely studied and used to constrain petrogenetic processes and emplacement mechanisms.

The time involved in modal data collection, as well as the cost of chemical analyses, makes the search for pluton-scale zoning patterns the exception rather than the norm in ‘magmatic arc studies’, however magnetic susceptibility ( Km ) of plutonic rocks – both magnetite bearing and magnetite free – can be an invaluable tool to quickly assess the internal organization of any pluton.

New field observations, new magnetic mineral data, and reprocessed Km data on the Barcroft granodiorite pluton ( White Mountains, California ) are presented.

The average Km of 660 specimens from 76 stations ranges from 140 x 10-6 [ SI ] to 75000 x 10-6 [ SI ] with an average at about 16800 x 10-6 [ SI ].

The distribution of Km is unimodal.

The hysteresis parameters of the Barcroft rocks indicate that Km is controlled mainly by multi-domain magnetite.

The contribution of mafic silicates ( biotite and hornblende ) to Km ranges from 0.4 to 99%, with an average at about 1.8%.

As in many other ferromagnetic ( i.e. magnetite – bearing ) plutons, Km variations reflect different amounts of magnetite which itself results from petrographic variations.

This is supported by the positive correlation between major oxide variations ( e.g., SiO2, FeO ) and Km.

A new Km map of the Barcroft pluton shows several important features including, a:

(a) Low Km zone in the SW corner of the pluton, near areas that exhibit economic mineralization possibly related to hydrothermal fluids;

(b) Few isolated anomalies that may be attributed to transformation of normal magnetite into lodestone;

(c) North south high Km ridge that could possibly result from local mingling between the main granodiorite rock type and syn-plutonic mafic dikes;

(d) Broad reverse Km zonation ( i.e. higher Km in the centre ); and,

(e) Possible ‘positive correlation between Km’ and ‘topographic elevation ( between 5,000 and 13,000 feet )’, which could be explained by a higher fO2 at a higher structural level in the chamber.

These preliminary results suggest that, the:

(1) Syn-plutonic diking may play a significant role in the geochemical differentiation of granodiorite plutons;

(2) Classic dichotomy between ilmenite [ Ilm ] series and magnetite [ Mag ] series of granitoids might at least – to some extent – depend on the ‘exposure level’ if such intrusions are confirmed to be vertically differentiated; and,

(3) Mapping Km in a ferromagnetic pluton can be an efficient tool to constrain its internal organization.


– – – –


[ NOTE: geochemistry and petrology of deep oceanic crust geothermal high-temperature ( Tave 713° C to Tave 722° C ) fluids … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: November 2002

Title: Petrology and geochemistry of the lower ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise and exposed at Hess Deep: A synthesis and new results

Authors: Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Thompson, G. M.; Hékinian, R.

Publication: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Volume 3, Issue 11, pp. 1, CiteID 8604, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000230 (GGG Homepage)

Origin: AGU [ ]

AGU Keywords: Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Igneous petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Metamorphic petrology, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Physics: Minor and trace element composition.

Bibliographic Code: 2002GGG….3kQ…1C


The geochemistry and petrology of the lower oceanic crust record information about the compositions of melts extracted from the mantle, how these melts mix and crystallize, and the role of hydrothermal circulation in this portion of the crust.

Unfortunately, lower oceanic crust formed at fast spreading ridges is rarely exposed at the seafloor making it difficult to study these processes.

At Hess Deep, crust formed at the East Pacific Rise ( EPR ) is exposed due to the propagation of the Cocos-Nazca spreading center westward.

Here we review our state of knowledge of the petrology of lower crustal material from Hess Deep, and document new mineral major and trace element compositions, amphibole-plagioclase thermometry, and plagioclase crystal size distributions.

Samples from the deeper parts of the gabbroic sequence contain clinopyroxene that is close to being in trace element equilibrium with erupted basalts but which can contain primitive ( moderate Cr, high Mg# ) orthopyroxene and very calcic plagioclase.

Because primitive Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ( MORB / MORBs ) are not saturated with orthopyroxene or very calcic plagioclase this suggests that melts added to the crust have variable compositions and that some may be in major but not trace element equilibrium with shallow depleted mantle.

These apparently conflicting data, are most readily explained if some of the melt – extracted from the mantle – is fully aggregated within the mantle but reacts with the shallow mantle during melt extraction.

The occurrence of cumulates, with these characteristics, suggests that ‘melts added to the crust’ do not all get mixed with normal MORB [ Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts ] in the Axial Magma Chamber ( AMC ), but rather that ‘some melts partially crystallize’ in isolation within the lower crust.

However, evidence that primitive melts fed the AMC [ Axial Magma Chamber ], along with steep fabrics in shallow gabbros ( from near the base of the dyke complex ), provides support for models in which crystallization within the AMC followed by crystal subsidence is also an important process in lower crustal accretion.

More evolved bulk compositions of gabbros ( from the upper than lower parts of the plutonic section ), are due to greater amounts of ‘reaction with interstitial melt’ and not because their parental melt had become highly fractionated through the formation of large volumes of cumulates deeper in the crust.

Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry confirms, previous reports, that the initial ingress of fluid occurs at high-temperatures in the shallow gabbros ( Tave 713° C ) and show that the temperature of amphibole formation was similar in deeper gabbros ( Tave 722°C ).

This thermometry also suggests that fracture and grain boundary permeability for seawater derived fluids was open over the same temperature interval.


– – – –


[ NOTE: analysis of new major data and trace element data from minerals … ]

Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: December 2010

Title: The `Daly Gap’ and implications for magma differentiation in composite shield volcanoes: A case study from Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand

Authors: Hartung, E.; Kennedy, B.; Deering, C. D.; Trent, A.; Gane, J.; Turnbull, R. E.; Brown, S.


AA ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AB ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; );

AC ( Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; );

AD ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AE ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AF ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ); AG ( Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; ).

Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #V52B-02

Origin: AGU

Keywords: [ 3610 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Geochemical modeling, [ 3618 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Magma chamber processes, [ 3620 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Mineral and crystal chemistry, [ 3640 ] MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY / Igneous petrology

Bibliographic Code: 2010AGUFM.V52B..02H


The origin of compositional gaps in volcanic deposits that are found worldwide, and in a range of different tectonic settings, has challenged petrologists since Daly’s first observations at mid-ocean ridges.

In the shield-forming Akaroa Volcano ( 9.6 – 8.6 Ma ) of Banks Peninsula ( New Zealand ), a dramatic compositional gap exists in both eruptive and co-genetic intrusive products between basalt and trachyte, and between gabbro and syenite respectively.

Rock compositions display mildly alkaline affinities ranging from picritic basalt, olivine alkali basalt, and hawaiite, to trachyte.

Intermediate mugearite and benmoreite ( 50 – 60 wt. % SiO2 ) are not exposed or absent.

Equivalent plutonic diorite, monzodiorite, and monzonite ( 45 – 65 wt. % SiO2 ) are also absent.

Previously, the formation of the more evolved trachyte and syenite has been ascribed to ‘crustal melting’, however our analysis of new major data and trace element data from bulk-rocks and minerals – of this hy-normative intraplate alkalic suite – provide evidence based on crystal fractionation and punctuated melt extraction for an alternative model.

In bulk rocks observed major and trace element fractionation trends can be reproduced by Rayleigh fractional crystallization from dry melts ( < 0.5 wt. % H2O ) at oxygen fugacities of one [ 1 ] unit below the Quartz [ Qtz ] – Fayalite [ Fa ] – Magnetite [ Mag ] buffer ( QFM – 1 ).

The results of our MELTS models are in agreement with experimental studies, and indicate a fractionation generated compositional gap where trachytic liquid ( 62 – 64 wt. % SiO2 ) has been extracted after the melt has reached a crystallinity of 65% – 70 %.

The fractionated assemblage, of:

– clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ]; – plagioclase; – magnetite; and, – apatite.

All [ of the aforementioned ] are left in a mafic cumulate residue ( 44 – 46 wt. % SiO2 ).

Calculated values of specific trace and minor elements ( Sr [ Strontium ], Cr [ Chromium ], P [ Phosphorus ] ) from a theoretical cumulate are consistent with measured concentrations from cumulate xenoliths. ‘ Compositional trends from individual mineral analysis are also supportive of fractional crystallization, but illustrate a disrupted ‘liquid line of decent for each mineral phase.

Olivine [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions progressively decrease in Mg [ Magnesium ] concentration ( Fo83-42 ) in basaltic [ magma ] melts and shows high Fe [ Iron ] concentration in trachytic melts ( Fo5-10 ).

Clinopyroxene [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] analyses also displays higher Fe [ Iron ] / Mg [ Magnesium ] ratios in more evolved rocks.

Ternary feldspar [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] compositions shift from plagioclase ( An84-56 ) in basalt to alkali feldspar ( Or8-65Ab53-33An39-2 ) [ depletes High Field Strength Element ( HFSE ) Neobium ( Nb ) ] in trachyte, but also lack the intermediate compositions.

On the other hand, analysis of mafic cumulate xenoliths reflect more evolved mineral compositions – towards the rim than volcanic equivalents – and complete observed fractionation trends.

In summary, our results indicate that these compositional gaps formed from punctuated melt extraction within an optimal crystal fraction window ( 60% – 70 % crystallinity ).


– – – –


Source: NASA Astrophysics Data System ( NADS ) [ Harvard University, access: ]

Publication Date: October 1996

Title: The Aurora volcanic field, California-Nevada: oxygen fugacity constraints on the development of andesitic magma

Authors: Lange, R. A.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.


AA ( Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ); AB ( Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ).

Publication: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Volume 125, Issue 2/3, pp. 167-185 (1996). (CoMP Homepage)   Origin: SPRINGER

DOI: 10.1007/s004100050214

Bibliographic Code: 1996CoMP..125..167L


The Aurora volcanic field, located along the northeastern margin of Mono Lake in the Western Great Basin, has erupted a diverse suite of high-K and shoshonitic lava types, with 48 to 76 wt. % SiO2, over the last 3,600,000 million years.

There is no correlation between the age and composition of the lavas.

Three-quarters of the volcanic field consists of evolved ( < 4 wt. % MgO ) basaltic andesite and andesite lava cones and flows, the majority of which contain sparse, euhedral phenocrysts that are normally zoned; there is no evidence of mixed, hybrid magmas.

The average eruption rate over this time period was ˜200 m3/km2/year, which is typical of continental arcs and an order of magnitude lower than that for the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

All of the Aurora lavas display a trace-element signature common to subduction-related magmas, as exemplified by Ba [ Barium ] / Nb [ Niobium ] ratios between 52 and 151.

Pre-eruptive water contents ranged from 1.5 wt. % in plagioclase – rich two-pyroxene andesites to ˜6 wt. % in a single hornblende lamprophyre and several biotite-hornblende andesites.

Calculated oxygen fugacities fall within 0.4 and + 2.4 log units of the Ni-NiO [ Nickel and Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

The Aurora potassic suite, follows a classic calc-alkaline trend in a plot of FeOT / MgO vs. SiO2 and displays linear decreasing trends in FeOT and TiO2 with SiO2 content, suggesting a prominent role for Fe [ Iron ] – Ti [ Titanium ] oxides during differentiation.

However, development of the calc-alkaline trend – through fractional crystallization of titanomagnetite – would have caused the residual liquid to become so depleted in ferric iron that its oxygen fugacity would have fallen several log units below that of the Ni [ Nickel ] – NiO [ Nickel – Oxygen ] buffer.

Nor can fractionation of hornblende be invoked, since it has the same effect – as titanomagnetite – in depleting the residual liquid in ferric iron, together with a thermal stability limit that is lower than the eruption temperatures of several andesites ( ˜1040 1080°C ; derived from two-pyroxene thermometry ).

Unless some progressive oxidation process occurs, fractionation of titanomagnetite – or hornblende – cannot explain a calc-alkaline trend in which all erupted lavas have oxygen fugacites ≥ the Ni-NiO [ Nickel – Nickel-Oxygen ] buffer.

In contrast to fractional crystallization, closed system equilibrium crystallization will produce residual liquids with an oxygen fugacity that is similar to that of the initial melt.

However, the eruption of nearly aphryic lavas argues against tapping from a magma chamber during equilibrium crystallization, a process that requires crystals to remain in contact with the liquid.

A preferred model involves the accumulation of basaltic magmas at the mantle crust interface, which solidify and are later remelted during repeated intrusion of basalt.

As an end – member case, closed – system equilibrium crystallization of a basalt, followed by equilibrium partial melting of the gabbro will produce a calc-alkaline evolved liquid ( namely, high SiO2 [ Silicon-Oxygen / Oxide ] and low FeOT / MgO ) with a relative f O 2 ( corrected for the effect of changing temperature ) that is similar to that of the initial basalt.

Differentiation of the Aurora magmas by repeated partial melting of previous underplates in the lower crust, rather than by crystal fractionation in large stable magma chambers, is consistent with the low eruption rate at the Aurora volcanic field.


– – – –

While the aforementioned information material concludes the introductory portion of Part 1 in this preliminary report, more easily understood materialize is intended to be documented in Part 2 through Part 5 ( previewed below ):

Part 2, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 of 5 ), is intended to focus on new ‘methods of capturing’ natural essence High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 3, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘discoveries of properties’ from captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE );

Part 4, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘applied theories’ of natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ); and,

Part 5, of this Preliminary Report ( Part 1 ), is intended to focus on new ‘transports’ having captured natural High Field Strength Elements ( HFSE ).


Submitted for review and commentary by,


Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com




Robot Combat Intelligence

[ PHOTO ( above ): W-88 miniature nuclear bomb property of USA ( click to enlarge ) ]

Robot Combat Intelligence
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

January 18, 2011 21:08:42 ( PST ) ( Originally Published: February 1, 2002 )

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington – January 18, 2011 – Over 12-years ago, after the United States realized too late that its ‘miniature nuclear weapons technology delivery system’ ( W-88 ) secrets had already been stolen ( from the vault of its insurance carrier ) after the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ) rapidly produced their own version, ‘only a select few’ realized a secret U.S. decision took futuristic concepts into development for U.S. global military applications deploying technologies that only seemed to have been conceived from science-fiction motion picture films ( e.g. STAR TREK, STAR WARS, MATRIX, and more ) shocking audiences worldwide.   In 1999, U.S. secret defense endeavors forgings – with several universities and U.S. government contract private sector organizations – were led by the U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) created even newer more advanced multiple Program stratagems employing various forms of ‘combinatoric’ technologies developed for globally deploying U.S. military dominance with various and sundry secret-sensitive devices and systems far beyond many imaginations.


DARPA SIMBIOSYS Program entails, amongst other things, multi-functional microbiological nano technology robot android devices primarily for military applications, where such remained until just a few years ago, until it began being applied in some medical arenas today.

To understand what is ‘current’, one must first look briefly at DARPA Programs ‘past’ ( 1999 – 2002 ), which ( alone ) is enough to ‘still send chills down many people’s spines today’. Once realizing what DARPA was doing 12-years ago, it’s not all that unfathomable to comprehend where DARPA has taken and will continue taking many.

SIMBIOSYS ( 1999 – 2002 ) –

In 1999, DARPA SIMBIOSYS developed a combined quantitative understanding of various biological phenomena characteristics opening the DARPA door to what amounts to MicroElectroMechanical Systems ( MEMS ) integrating microphotonics in, amongst many things such as electro-optic spatial light modulators ( SLM ) combining very short pulse solid state lasers providing powerful new capabilities for secure communication up-links ( multi-gigabits per second ), ‘aberration free’ 3-D imaging and targeting performed at very long ranges ( greater than 1,000 kilometers away ), innovative design system integration of MEMS spatial light modulators ( SLM ) providing quantum wavefront control leaps in photonics and high speed electronics, and even ‘flexible cloth-like smart materials’ DARPA wants hardware placed into production devices and systems applications optimizing both U.S. and ‘its specially selected few other foreign nation U.S. friendlies’ ( Israel ) to hold in future warfaring battlespace management superiority over other foreign nation threats.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS includes classes of biological molecules ( i.e. antigens, antibodies, DNA, cytokines, enzymes, etc. ) for analyses and diagnoses studies, from:

1. Biochemical sensors, sensing ‘details from environments’; and,

2. Biochemical sensors, sensing ‘details from human body fluids’.

Specific examples under each of those two ( 2 ) groups being left up to the discretion of the PI.

Bio-molecules importance slect criteria, includes:

1. Microsystem sensors, for automated sampling and analyses, extendibility;

2. Bio-molecules simulant, to which it represents U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ) relevant extents; and,

3. Bio-detection high degree of sensitivity and specificity processing, etc.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS emphasis is at the ‘molecular level’ for ‘sensing’ and ‘detection’.

SIMBIOSYS Program precludes human cells and human tissue based sensing because other DARPA programs currently address those issues in combination thereof.


SIMBIOSYS Program ‘stimulates multi-disciplinary research’ – bringing together biologists, chemists, engineers, physicists, computer scientists and others to address difficult and pressing challenges in advancing micro and nano-biotechnology.

SIMBIOSYS Program goal is to ‘utilize phenomena’ in ‘bio-fluidic transport’, ‘molecular recognition’ and ‘signal transduction from joint studies in modeling and experiments.

SIMBIOSYS Program joint effort expects results in ‘new hardware device, new hardware processes and new hardware production communities that will begin utilizing new models, new rules, new methods and new processes together enabling design and development of enhanced performance next generation bio-microdevices.

DARPA Advanced Projects –

DARPA is focusing on, amongst many, these advanced projects:

1. Bioengineering artificial intelligence ( AI ) systems sized from nanometers and meters up to large-scale robotic systems deployed globally;

2. Biological hybrid devices and systems, inspired from computational algorithms and models;

3. Biosynthesized composite materials incorporating synthetic enzymes and pathways from biochemical cellular engineered concepts for application productions;

4. Neural phenomena control over system science computation measurement application interfaces addressing humans;

5. Micro-scale reagents biochemically engineered;

6. Biosynthesis signal processing control platform studies;

7. Molecular biological population level behavior dynamic simulation modeling complexes; and,

8. Subcellular device physics affects and cellular device physics affects within biological component systems using real-time non-destructive observation study techniques.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy MicroFlyer, only a Microelectronic Aerial Vehicle – MAV ( click to enlarge ) ]

Bioengineered MicroBots Developed & Deployed –

Battlefields now require ‘unmanned combat aerial vehicles’ ( UCAV ) and ‘advanced weapons’ that self-navigate and self-reconfigure with autonomous communication systems accomplishing time-critical commands, however while many use Commercial Off The Shelf ( COTS ) products, such is not the case for developed and deployed bioengineered microrobots.

MicroBot AMR Control By MARS –

DARPA mobile autonomous robot software ( MARS ) Project is designed to develop and transition ‘currently unavailable software technologies programming’ operations of autonomous mobile robots ( AMR ) in partially known changing and unpredictable environments.

DARPA SIMBIOSYS Program aims provide new software removing humans from combat, conveyance, reconnaissance, and surveillance processes by:

1. Extending military hardware range;

2. Lowering manpower costs;

3. Removing human physiology for swifter concepts, designs, engineering, development, and deployment successes; and,

4. Researchers demonstrating autonomous navigation of humanoid robots, unmanned military vehicles, autonomous vehicles and interactions between humans.

DARPA indicates that robots – to be meaningful – must be fully integrated into human lives in military, commercial, educational and domestic usages must be capable of interacting in more natural human ways.

DARPA funded research and development of robots given similar bodies with human-like intelligence for humanoid interaction providing new ways for the human world.

COG Robot –

DARPA funded Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) researchers, employing a set of sensors and actuators ( with small microcontrollers for joint level control, up to larger audio-visual digital signal network pre-processors for controlling different levels of its heterogeneous hierarchy network ) approximating human body sensory and motor dynamics, created the robot named COG that eventually allowed DARPA further development of deployable, modular, reconfigurable and autonomous robots.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Biomorphic Explorers – Snakes and Bats ( click to enlarge ) ]

CONRO Robots –

CONRO robots, developed through DARPA, employed autonomous capabilities, of:

1. Self-repair; and, 2. Morphogenesis ( changing shapes ).

Examples, amongst many, included design styled:

Snake robots, able to move ‘in-to’ and ‘out-of’ tight spaces; and,

Insect robots, able to move faster ( covering more ground meeting military mission swifter needs ).

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Spider, and Payload biochemical delivery simulation ( click to enlarge ) ]

CONRO robots were design equipped to perform two ( 2 ) missions:

1. Reconnaissance ( activity detection, monitorization, and reporting – surveillance ); and,

2. Deliver small ‘military payloads’ ( bio-chemical weapons, etc. ) into ‘enemy occupied remote territory locations’ ( away-from friendly warfighters ).

CONRO robots are comprised of multiple SPIDERLINK modules.

In 1999, DARPA built both ‘snakes’ and ‘hexapods’ as ‘initially tethered’ prototypes termed 1-DOF, equipped with abilities to both ‘dock’ and ‘gait ambulate’ based on applied computational algorithms.

In 2000, DARPA had twenty ( 20 ) autonomous self-sufficient ‘modules’ – not mentioning what those resembled – built designated as 2-DOF, after:

1. Hormone based control developed and tested theory;

2. Hormone hexapods and snakes implemented motions ( for 2-DOF );

3. Quadrupeds, hexapods and snakes implemented locomotion with centralized control for 2-DOF;

4. Morphing self-repair ‘modules’ delivering small payloads used ‘miniature cameras’ that were designed and tested; and,

5. Snake head with snake tail with configured docking capabilities were implemented laboratory two dimensional ( 2-D ) testing.

CONRO DARPA Near-Term Milestones:

1. Modules’ reconfigurability ( morphogenesis ) robust automation designed and demonstrated ( for 2-DOF );

2. Topology ‘discovery’ ( automatic topography recognition ) demonstration;

3. Gait reconfiguration ( morphogenesis ) automation for ambulating a ‘given’ ( programmed instruction ) topology designed and demonstrated;

4. Gait reconfiguration ( morphogenesis ) automation for ambulating a ‘discovery’ ( automatic topography recognition ) designed and demonstrated;

5. Wireless ( radio frequency, infra-red, etc. ) control of miniature cameras demonstrated;

6. Pointing ( waving, mousepad, etc. ) control of miniature cameras demonstrated; and,

7. Large scale deployment of CONRO robots demonstrated.

[ PHOTO ( above ): DARPA BioBot named Blaberus ( click to enlarge ) ]

Deployer Robot ( DR ) –

Deployer Robots ( DR ) ‘support’ and ‘deploy’ distributed ‘teams of other smaller robots’ termed “Joeys” ( singular, “Joey” ) that perform either ‘hazardous tasks’ or ‘tedious tasks’.

Deployer Robots ( DR ) have two ( 2 ) roles, that:

1. Carry and launch given numbers of smaller Joey robots ( Joeys ); and,

2. Command and control ( C2 ) – after launching – Joey robots ( Joeys ).

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy CyberLink HID test USAF personnel with DARPA robots ( click to enlarge ) ]

Robot Loop Pyramid –

Robot-in-the-Loop ( RIL ) concept, augments Human-in-Loop ( HIL ), building a ‘pyramid of robots’ – supervised by one ( 1 ) person.

‘Launch’ and ‘Command and Control’ ( C2 ) – of different Joey robots ( multiple, i.e. Joeys ) – two ( 2 ) goals are handled independently, as:

1. ‘Launch’ of robots, via grenade sized Joey robot clusters ( multiple ), developed under DARPA Deployer Robot ( DR ) Program availability of smaller Joeys; and,

2. ‘Command and Control’ ( C2 ), is investigated using ‘larger robots’ developed for DARPA ITO sister Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program enabling fully leverage of both Deployer Robot ( DR Program and Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program development of algorithms leveraging heterogeneous interaction between a ‘smart’ highly mobile ‘Deployer Robot’ ( DR ) and a ‘team’ of Joey robots that are more powerful, less computational and less mobile.

[ PHOTO ( above ): legacy Virtual Combiman digital glove waving battlespace management ( click to enlarge ) ]

DARPA key universal elements of robot deployment examined:

1. Emplacement – Launching and dynamically situating the Joeys for mission goals;

2. Operations – Maintaining the infrastructure to support the distributed front, including communications and error detection and recovery ( e.g., getting back on course after positional drift ); and,

3. Recovery – Collecting Joey robots data to analyze after delivery into a format useful for the human operator.

DARPA Deployer Robot ( DR ) Program development acquired and refitted two ( 2 ) Urban Robot Upgrades ( URU ) in new Deployer Robots ( DR ) types.

DARPA, investigated five ( 5 ) alternate launch strategies, but selected only one ( 1 ):

1. Grenade barrel launch, delivery of robots, into a three ( 3 ) story building.

2. Grenade barrel launcher was designed, equipped and developed, with:

3. Grenade Magazine contains ‘multiple Joey robots’ for ejection – supports full mobility integrity of the Deployer Robot ( DR );

4. Sensor mast ( collapsible ) – for Deployer Robot ( DR ) interaction with Joey robots launched on arrival at destination location; and,

5. Communication ( 916 MHz ) link between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots.

DARPA SDR Program –

DARPA Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program development designed and built Joey robot prototypes ( approximately 3-1/2 inch cube ) for ultimate fabrication in a production lot quantity of 120 Joey robot units.

DARPA Software for Distributed Robotics ( SDR ) Program leverage and adaptation controls swarms of Joey robots.

DARPA Near-Term Milestones:

1. Launch propulsion mechanisms ( C02 cartridge, .22 caliber shell, or other ) deployment testing of Joey robots into battlefield areas;

2. Launcher ( of multiple Joey robot deployment ) mechanism built on-board first ( 1st ) Deployer Robot ( DR ) named Bandicoot;

3. Sensor mast ( collapsible ) built and installed on-board second ( 2nd ) Deployer Robot ( DR ) named Wombat;

4. Radio Frequency ( RF ) development protocols for interaction between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots;

5. Infra-Red ( IR ) deployment protocols for interaction mechanisms between Deployer Robot ( DR ) and Joey robots using IR ( Infra-Red );

6. Human Interface Device ( HID ) operator remote control unit ( ORCU ) development for Deployer Robot ( DR ).

DARPA SIMBIOSYS began over 12-years ago. All the photographs ( above ) are almost one decade ( 10-years ) old.

Current careful research on this subject further provides more information about where the U.S. stands today.

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com