Continental Plates Split Continues Elsewhere

A diagram of the shifts in the San Andreas fault.

Continental Plates Split Continues Elsewhere
by, KentronIntellectResearchVault ( KIRV )

April 30, 2013 ( Originally Published: September 27, 2012 )

CALIFORNIA, Palos Verdes Penninsula – April 30, 2013 – Earthquake magnitude severity levels and frequency of earthquake swarms are increasing, and in a series of three ( 3 ) reports written by teams of geophysicts recently, it appears plates are splitting open and spreading to other tectonic plates elsewhere where its growing.

From mega earthquakes that unfortunately went publicly unrecognized for several months now, the report indicates a growing trend in ultra-deep oceanic earthquakes spreading elsewhere.

The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.3 oceanic earthquake ( “Boxing Day Earthquake” ) resulted saw Indian Ocean tsunami deaths of 300,000 people located in several nations ( e.g. Indonesia, Thailand, and India ).

These ultradeep oceanic mega earthquakes crack open continental plates causing land and sea ocean waters to travel.

The March 2011 Japan ultradeep sea Pacific Ocean magnitude 9.2 earthquake split open an entire undersea mountain range 300-miles long, and the resultant tsunami killed everyone ( 15,000 + ) in an entire city.

On April 11, 2012 several back-to-back near 9.0 magnitude earthquakes released an unusual ‘energy factor’ of “Seismic Radiation” travelling at a speed of 7,000 miles per hour with so much power in rapid succession multiple strikes they ‘cracked open a major continental plate’ in the Indian Ocean plus triggered ‘other tectonic plates’ toward the Pacific Ocean to split open as well.

From continental plates in the Indian Ocean growing toward the Pacific Ocean immense geographic region known as the “Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire,” nations from Australia up to Japan and Russia over to Alaska down to California and Argentina have become activated with an unusual continental plate energy.

Unexpected surprises, however recently went publicly unrecognized, a few months ago in Southern California.

During August 2012, strange anomalies began occurring when more than 400 earthquakes in 1-day centered around a little known about ‘volcano’ buried in the Salton Sea near Bombay Beach of Brawley, California located right on-top-of the southern end of the San Andreas Fault Zone where a “Great Earthquake” has not occurred in hundreds of years, which has U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) geophysicts believing is now far too long over due.

To read more details about the Indian Ocean continental plate cracking to others splitting toward the Pacific Ocean, review the three ( 3 ) brief reports, global charts, graphs, and films at these official websites ( below ):

Research References

#1. REPORT:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11492.html

ADOBE ADDITIONAL DATA:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060185

MOVIE CLIP DATA ( ADDITIONAL ):

http://es.ucsc.edu/~thorne/NATURE_SUMATRA/YLK_SI_Movies.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/extref/nature11492-s2.mov

#2. REPORT:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11504.html

ADOBE ADDITIONAL DATA:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/extref/nature11504-s1.pdf

#3. REPORT:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11520.html

ADOBE ADDITIONAL DATA:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/extref/nature11520-s1.pdf

Submitted for review and commentary by,

 

Kentron Intellect Research Vault
E-MAIL: KentronIntellectResearchVault@Gmail.Com
WWW: KentronIntellectResearchVault.WordPress.Com

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CIA StarShip Speed 1 LightYear In 1 EarthYear

CIA StarShip Speed 1 Light Year In 1 Earth Year
by, Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV )

April 26, 2013 13:22 ( PST ) Update ( Originally Published: July 14, 2012 )

Relative Topics -

- Virgo A ( constellation, of 5 ‘cluster galaxies’ );
– Supernovae ( ’2 star collision’, a ‘dual galaxy collision’ );
– Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH – resultant effect from a Supernovae dual galaxy collision );
– Centaurus A ( Cen-A, A1847, NGC 5128, PKS 1322-427, 1RXH J132519.8-430312, CXOU J132519.9-43031 );
– Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB – inverse / reverse Compton effect Cherenkov Muons, Cherenkov Light, and Cherenkov Radiation );
– Jet ( Whole Jet, Counter Jet – extragalactic SmBH inverse / reverse Compton effect Cherenkov multi-messenger neutron light radiation Cosmic Ray particle beam jets );
– Atmosphere, Atmospherics;
– Oxygen ( Oxygen molecules ), Ozone atmospheric layer;
– Tau Air-Shower ( invisible Cherenkov light muon Thomson scatter patterned atmospheric showers );
– Planetary magamatic superconductivity volcanic excitations;
– Earthquake, seismicity;
– BowShock, Local Interstellar Cloud ( LIC ), InterStellar Medium ( ISM );
– NASA PlanetQuest ( Planet Quest );
– Living With a Star ( LWS ) U.S. Presidential Executive Order Programs and Projects [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Living_With_a_Star ];
– U.S. President Executive Order ( 2004 – NASA missioned to locate exoplanets for Earth colonization ) [ http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040130-7.html ];
– ExoPlanetary exploration ( ExoPlanet, planets outside Earth solar system ) [ http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/moontomars/docs/M2MReportScreenFinal.pdf ];
– InterStellar SpaceCraft ( ISSC );
– Interstellar Propulsion;
– AntiHydrogen Energy Dense AntiMatter Hydrogen Propellants developed by CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) [ http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0410511.pdf ];
– RAND CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen energy development research );
– RAYTHEON CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen energy propulsion development and test-engineering );
– ORBITAL SCIENCES CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen energy propulsion test platform and demonstrator );
– BOEING CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen Propulsion );
– National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ), U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force ( USAF ), U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA );

Constellation Virgo A

Virgo A, extragalactic resident attributes, consist of:

- Five ( 5 ) Galaxies ( positioned in ‘1 cluster’ within ‘Virgo A’ );
– One ( 1 ) Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) resultant from a ‘dual galactic collision’ ( 2 );
– Two ( 2 ) InterStellar Medium ( ISM ) BowShock Radio-Frequency ( RF ) Wave ( Radio Wave ) Lobe Clouds; and,
– Two ( 2 ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) Jets ( Whole Jet & Counter Jet ).

According to recent scientific reports, the central galactic universe source for ‘all Cosmic Rays’ ( CR ) continues ricocheting throughout our galactic universe today from, amongst many smaller extragalactic sources, one ( 1 ) lone Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) “Whole Jet” ( ‘not’ its dual counter-part, the: “Counter Jet” ) that occured eons ago when two ( 2 ) Supermassive galaxies collided with one another forming what is known as a Supernovae ( ‘dual’ Supernovae ) that was so powerful and so bright that the GRB Cherenkov neutron light radiation particle beam jet was ‘visually observed with the human eye’ of an astronomer citing notes that were traced back to having been coming out-of the “Scorpius-Centaur” extragalactic universe during the 16th Century ( 1522 ) that astronomers identify as originating from near the center of “Centaurus A” ( also known as ) “Cen-A” where this gigantic particle beam jet diameter is about the same diameter size of Earth’s solar system, but wait – there’s more:

This same particle beam jet contains “Superluminous” light energy radiation particle elements moving at up to six ( 6 ) times faster than the speed of light. That’s correct, the jet light is moving 6 times faster than lightspeed, and was shot out of the extragalactic Supermassive Black-Hole in ‘forward time’ that began catching up with Earth time in December 2004 when within 48-hours of the Indonesia Andaman – Sumatra 9.3 magnitude earthquake that sent a tsunami killing nearly 300,000 people and also burnt an incredibly huge hole right out-of the Earth’s ozone atmospheric layer, and it is additionally unfortunate to note that not until very recently did these two ( 2 ) seemingly dissimilar Earth Events finally become put together by astrophysicists and geoastrophysicists – whom never saw to publicly announcing these facts to the public through mainstream news media. Why?

Earth ‘southern hemisphere’ telescope observatories view this galactic system hazard growing worse as it quickly nears our solar system, in-fact the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) has increased huge sums of global investment monies into the South Pole Telescope ( SPT ), Pierre Auger Observatory Sud ( Argentina ), Cherenkov Telescope Array ( CTA ), and more.

NASA pressed Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) retrofits and its new space-based replacement James Webb Telescope Observatory in-addition to many multiple other ground-based and space-based telescope observatories around the world trying to calculate the ‘date when’ the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet is expected to elminate all Earth oxygen particles.

How can this be? No one heas heard anything on the news about this! This is ‘why’ this report was written, to notify the public to begin researching it for themself because their governments are ‘no longer obligated to warn them of any pending natural disaster’, a new law just passed into effect for the United States during early 2012.

While the trajectory of this Cen-A GRB particle beam jet propagating velocity is directed just north and above our solar system the fact is that when this particle beam jet comes to within a range of 1,000 light-years away from Erath’s solar system it will become what scientists and astrophysicists and some mebers of government already know it has been labelled as, a “Planetary Atmosphere Killer.”

Earth already received a sample of the power involved within the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet when only a small scouting team of these particle beam entered Earth’s upper ionosphere from where it rained down into Earth’s oxygen atmosphere layer as recorded by detectors registering what are called “Tau Air-Showers” invisible pin-prick light streams characterized by straight line patterned Thomson scatter or self ricocheting sprays of intense radiation some just categorize as “Cosmic Rays” that hit Earth during latter December 2004.

Unfortunately, much more of the same is headed our way and such bombardments are continuing in intensity day by day with increasing frequencies too on Earth.

Enterprise Sustainability Black-Hole Economics

Public Private Partnership Program Project Sub-Contractor Sub-Program Sub-Projects

For more than 62-years, multiple trillions of dollars – allocated by authority of The World Bank through the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) to multi-national foundations have been and continue being spent under auspices of “Global Initiatives” instituting multi-national government agreements utilizing private-sector businesses, vendor sub-contractors, universities, colleges, institutes coordinated by liaisons with think-tanks conceptualizing, theorizing, calculating, researching, developing, testing, designing, building, launching, maintaining, retrofitting and relaunching ground-based and space-based platform monitoring stations equipped with ultra advanced emerging technology remote sensing collectors, systems and devices feeding incalculable amounts of raw data into high-performance supercomputers with centralized network analytic technicians translating human comprehendable information back to yet other think-tanks developing plans to somehow carry a ‘few’ ( ‘not all’ ) human beings off Earth and out of harms way; away from the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet – that has included, but not been limited to, some ( ‘not all’ ) of the following target areas ( below ):

- Earth-based Deserts ( high altitude and low-altitude ), Mountains ( high-altitude ), Waterways ( natural ocean and artificially controlled man-made lake ) and Polar Ice ( South Pole ) regions; plus,

- Space-based Satellite Spacecraft platforms monitoring Earth solar system local space regions, deep space and ultra-deep space extragalactic spectral imaging sensor and particle collector ‘downstreams’ to ground-stations, plus ‘classified spacecraft mission retrievables ( i.e. ‘particle collection unit replacement modules’ and ‘data platens’ ).

Detailed information, although publicly available, remains unpackaged and unknown for public comprehension.

People, especially in the United States of America ( USA ), are so busy with distractions that they barely allow time in their daily life for so much as even a ‘partial news broadcast’ so, there is a better than even chance that people as a whole are not going to ‘make time for researching anything’ ( ‘if they knew how’ ) or even bother opening their local telephone book Yellow Page directory where unfortunately ‘private researchers are not even listed’ in ‘local retail neighorhood directories’.

Just attempting to put all these galactic and technical observation puzzle pieces together into a ‘layman easily-read information package’ surrounding the Cen-A GRB particle beam headed toward Earth would not be difficult for the United States government. Why should government upset its citizenry status quo and that of market money heirarchy fueled by rat raced society today?

U.S. Government Printing Office ( Pueblo, Colorado, USA )

How does government sell a drastic change, to the way everyone currently lives their own lives today, without creating chaos?

How long will it take to fully adjust a global population?

You remember the pen name author George Orwell who wrote his book entitled “1984 ( printed in “1948″ ) that showed how future shock took place for citizen masses, and like any good snake oil salesman of yore, the key is all in how you pitch the new idea.

Living With AstroParticles ( LWA ) – Next Earth New Life Guides

- Oxygen Alternatives ( QxyAlt );
– OxyAlt Vitamin Energy Boosters ( Recreational Biosynthetic Narcotics By Rx Only );
– OxyAlt Breathing Boosters;
– OxyAlt Cosmetics ( Men & Women ); and,
– Others.

U.S. Government Printing Office ( Pueblo, Colorado, USA ) may very well hold a type of guidebook for population centers remaining in the dark on such matters involving “Carbony1 Sulfide” alternatives most human beings on Earth today know absolutely nothing about that alter molecular structures defining new breathable gas mixtures substituting what we breathe today ( oxygen ) for what we will be breathing ( carbony1 sulfide mixtures ) in the future.

Only a few looming questions remain:

1. “Will Government Ever Announce This?”
2. “Why Didn’t Government Announce The 2004 Particle Beam Ozone Destruction?”
3. “Has Government Announced ‘Your Preparatory Time’ ( 15-years, 20-years, 35-years )?”
4. “When Will You Prepare Your Timetable?”
5. “Will You Continue Waiting For A Government Announcement That Will Never Come?”
6. “Did You Elect Government Control Over Your Life And That Of Your Family?”

The Cen-A Cherenkov particle beam GRB jet possesses other enhanced characteristics still being studied, however we do know this particular hazardous light radiation beam, is:

- High-Directional ( light-beam focus length );
– Thick ( approx. diameter of Earth’s solar system );
– Planetary Atmosphere Killer ( ‘incredibly superbright’ and ‘intensely hot photonic’ and ‘extremely hazardous radiation particles’; and,
– Distant Death Ray ( even as far away as 1,000 light-years from any planet’, these ‘GRB jet light beams’ instantly disintegrate oxygen molecules’ throughout entire atmospheric ( ozone layer ) layers.

Few planets are rich in ‘oxygen molecules’, however many planets in our solar system ‘do have some atmosphere’, although believed by many as humanly unbreatheable, nevertheless Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) jets destroy oxygen molecules ‘above planets’ and recently discovered ‘within planets’ to some degree.

Space-borne “Ray” ( “Radiation” ) Relative Yet Confusing Terms -

- Cosmic Rays ( CR );
– Gamma-Rays ( GR );
– Gamma Ray Bursts ( GRB );
– Whole Jet ( WJ );
– Counter Jet ( CJ );
– Jet ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Stream ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Beam ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– FlashLight ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Tau AirShowers ( e.g. Space-borne invisible but powerful light energy ‘astroparticles’ penetrate Earth atmospherics beneath where “Thomson scatter” ‘patterned astroparticles’ ricochet Ultra-High Energies ( UHE ) penetrate Earth surfaces ( ground and waterway floor beds ) down to varying depths – including more than 1-mile deep );
– Sprites;
– Elves; and,
– Others.

Modern day terms define any “vehicle” as an “engine driven carrying machine” – a ‘generalized term identifying certain objects’. Further name labeling identifies “vehicle” object ‘types’, specifically:

- Automobile ( Car );
– Truck;
– Van;
– Motorcycle ( Motor-Bicycle / Motor Bike );
– ATV ( All Terrain Vehicle );
– Amphibian ( Amphibious Car / Boat / AS – Aerial Submersible );
– Boat ( Motorized Boat / Yacht / SailBoat / Jet-Ski );
– Submarine ( Submersible / Mini-Sub ); and,
– Train ( Locomotive );
– Helicopter;
– Airplane; and,
– Spacecraft.

Cen-A GRB is our solar system major point of origin for ‘all’ “Cosmic Rays”

Cosmic Rays ( CR ) encapsulate, for the most part, extragalactic high-energy, power and light radiation level atomic and subatomic particle element energy propagation velocity phenomenon.

Cosmic Ray GRB jets consist of intertwinded powerful behaviors, involving:

- ‘Atomic particles’ are ‘semi-visible Matter’, involving photons, protons, electrons, atoms, etc. we’ve all heard mentioned before; and,

- ‘Subatomic particles’ are ‘invisible AntiMatter’, involving neutrinos, muons, leptons, neutralinos, neutrinos, etc. we rarely hear anything about.

Neutrino type particles ‘penetrate planets and stars instantly’. In-fact, in ‘far less time than a human eye blink’ neutrino-like particles will penetrate a through solid rock or thermonuclear dynamos of any planet or sun and right out the other side shooting off into the rest of the universe ).

Subatomic neutrinos were believed by the public to typically pass through all Earth life human beings without any adverse affects as nothing appeared to happen, however, recent discoveries prove ‘subatomic particles’ ( penetrating incredible hard objects ) linked to ‘atomic particle radiation types’ and into the rest of galactic space ), e.g. Cherenkov muon light radiation, X-rays, Gamma-rays, Cosmic Rays ) beam ( 4,000 light-years long fro”Centaurus A” ( Cen-A ) GRB is known as the ‘brightest object from Earth’s southern sky telescope observatories.

Earth bombardments therefrom, consisting of certain Compton effect Cherenkov muon light radiation photonics bound with UltraHigh-Energy ( UHE ) extremely bright blue-white pin pricks of light of incredibly extreme heat intensity powered by ( multiple Trillion electron Volts / TeV) within two ( 2 ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) jets streaming more than 4,000 lightyears in length – forward in time – out-of the accretion disk in a Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) resultant from a ‘dual galaxy collision’ Supernovae eons ago additionally producing a ‘dual lobe’ InterStellar Medium ( ISM ) Local Interstellar Cloud ( LIC ) packing two ( 2 ) bowshock gravitational wave shells travelling with incredible velocity already mushroomed now directly into the path of Earth’s solar system Sun.

What is being done to ‘protectively shelter Earth life’ and/or ‘prolong Earth life’?

Is Earth being abandoned? If so, ‘How’ and ‘When’?

Information was presented to the current President of the United States ( POTUS ) hurriedly co-signed his predecessor’s previous U.S. Presidential Executive Order ( EO ) instituting, the following:

Living With a Star ( LWS ) Program [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_13326 ].

Office of the President of the United States ( POTUS ) Executive Order ( EO ) 13326 Living With a Star Program [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_13326 ] involves something recently brought to light in the mainstream news media, surrounding:

- Exoplanetary Research, Exploration, Sustainability, and Colonization.

U.S. NASA Crazy? Like A Fox!

Former high-ranking U.S. military personnel retirees, usually enter private-sector industrial U.S. defense complex companies funded by U.S. government citizen tax dollars [ http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040130-7.html ] involving educational institution Programs building brilliantly talented student minds recruited into certain entities missioned with herculean tasks ( e.g. design, engineer, test, demonstrate and produce advanced projects for secret programs ) of which the BOEING interstellar spacecraft reality bought and built all of the aforementioned through [ http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&asmp;p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/6813330 ] RAYTHEON ( and other entities ) where employees had no clue their Project was aonly a sub-Project for another larger Project that was part of a global network of sub-Programs tied into CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) that held 5 ( 5 ) other global Projects leading sub-Programs traversed in and out of several multinational government space Science & Technology ( S&T ) Programs leading many multiple sub-Project ultra-deep space ground-based and space-based observatory platforms retrofitted with new advanced adaptive optics, replacement mirrors, spectral sensor data imagery converters, extragalactic particle collectors.

CIA InterStellar Propulsion SpaceCraft Attains 1 Light-Year In 1 Earth-Year

[ http://api.ning.com:80/files/dnFzKnIyGRYCzDJmMen9Ee5UUpegrAM3Ij6jeMowczzQ9hvavlbK9nkItmEfy8ATu1ySDg*k4pa0vsGaANzB1pp8fEmW0UUp/2008BOEINGElSegundoCaliforniaOrbitalSciencesandRaytheonSAS.jpg ]

[ http://api.ning.com:80/files/dnFzKnIyGRYCzDJmMen9Ee5UUpegrAM3Ij6jeMowczzQ9hvavlbK9nkItmEfy8ATu1ySDg*k4pa0vsGaANzB1pp8fEmW0UUp/2008BOEINGElSegundoCaliforniaOrbitalSciencesandRaytheonSAS.jpg ]

What began to develop from using Soviet bloc country physicists secretly smuggled in and out of the MCDONNELL DOUGLAS Space Systems Center “Quad Building” ( Huntington Beach, California, USA ) through today’s current successor BOEING Space Systems Center ( Huntington Beach, California ), RAYTHEON CORPORATION ( Waltham, MA ) and RAYTHEON SAS ( El Segundo, California, USA ) has been discovered [ http://patents.justia.com/assignee/RAYTHEONCOMPANY.html ] and selling what other foreign nations spent billions of dollars on CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) projects, however secretly CERN knew well its sole mission for the United States of America: “Refine AntiMatter Hydrogen SubAtomic Production Into AntiHydrogen Propulsion Power for the U.S. Interstellar SpaceShip. Sound ridiculous?

In 1986, RAND CORPORATION ( Santa Monica, California, USA ) was the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( C.I.A. ) Science and Technology ( S&T ) private-sector foreign intelligence contractor missioned to spy and steal secrets from physicists particularly inside Eastern Europe countries and governments ( Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, et. al. ) and on Western Europe U.S. friendly foreign nations. RAND CORPORATION primary intelligence mission was for the [ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA229279 ] U.S. government military to obtain Anti-Hydrogen propulsion power for its own extragalactic starship [ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA229279 ] one [ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA229279 ] of [ http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a238011.pdf ] two [ http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a238011.pdf ] reports ).

In a novel published in 2000 that was turned into 2009 motion picture film entitled, “Angels & Demons,” a hidden vat of potentially explosive AntiHydrogen was depicted buried under the Holy Roman Catholic Church St. Peter Basilica cathedral ( Rome, Italy ), the CERN LBNL UCB physicists’ experiment numbers ( 38 ) of AntiHydrogen atoms and duration ( 1/10th of 1-second ) do not actually threaten the Vatican.

In 2002, CERN created the first ( 1st ) artificially produced Low-Energy ( LE ) antihydrogen atoms, consisting of a positron ( AntiMatter Electron / AntiElectron ) orbiting an AntiProton nucleus, but at that time atoms were ( striking normal ‘Matter’ ) were ( within microseconds ) instantly annihilated by Gamma-Rays.

Another CERN sub-Program sub-Project experimental test ( CPT symmetry ) named ALPHA ( Antihydrogen Laser PHysics Apparatus ) involved global collaboration, including physicists from Lawrence-Livermore Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL – Berkeley, California ) and the University of California at Berkeley ( UCB ) TRAPping ( for a little more than 1/10th of 1-second ) a total of thirty-eight ( 38 ) AntiHydrogen atoms before instantly annihilating ( again ).

Later, another CERN sub-Project experiment named ATHENA, a larger global collaboration shutdown in 2004, first ( 1st ) detection of Cold AntiHydrogen.

Alladin Magic Lamp Powerful Genie Trapped

CERN sole purpose was to create Interstellar Propulsion Power for the United States of America BOEING starship, which CERN successfully accomplished after ‘creating tens of millions of AntiHydrogen atoms’.

CERN used autoresonance on Cold AntiProtons compressed into two ( 2 ) individual tiny ( 20 mm long x 1.4 mm diameter / size of a ‘wooden match-stick head’ ) tubular-shaped bubbles.

In 2004, two ( 2 ) tiny tubular bubble clouds were positioned within an ‘expensive’ hollowed-out bottle, an octupole superconducting magnet wall bottle ( lamp ), used to stablize UltraHigh-Energy ( UHE ) Trillion electron Volt ( TeV ) plasmodic discharges.

One ( 1 ) tiny ( 20-mm x 1.4-mm ) tubular-shaped bubble cloud was tasked to flow over the other ( 2nd ) tiny tublar-shaped bubble when the AntiHydrogen power was finally trapped in the containment tank ( bottle ).

There is barely any weight involved at all for propulsion power.

AntiHydrogen SubAtomic power had been harnessed for almost 3-years before the BOEING U.S. interstellar starship was witnessed on November 11, 2011.

Interstellar starship staring-plane mosaic guidance systems and antihydrogen energy propellant has been confidentially reported as already having made interstellar flights in a spaceship that has travelled “1 light-year away away from Earth in about 1 Earth-year,” and on November 11, 2011 at 8:15 p.m. such interstellar starship was viewed by two ( 2 ) adult men.

Believed under secret flight orders dispatched through the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ) that dispacthes CIA overflight missions, the interstellar starship was recorded travelling silently above ground at an incredibly low altitude of approximately 1,000 feet and doing so at an incredibly slow speed of approximately 35-miles per hour. The men remarked at how such an incredibly huge elongated black triangle craft could even remain airborne while exhibiting such.

One ( 1 ) of the witnesses, was a former U.S. Air Force intelligence specialist who the following morning ( November 12, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. ) was visited by a retired Lieutenant General of the United States Air Force. Details of their conversation have not been released to the public to-date.

AntiMatter force deflection dematerializing space debris from otherwise penetrating the outer skin ( akin to ‘UltraViolet light zapping flying insects’ ) undoubtedly protected craft structural integrity of the BOEING interstellar starship ( “Enterprise III” ).

Exoplanetary Mission & Interstellar Spaceship ( NOA ARC ) Living With a Star Program – [ http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/60736main_M2M_report_small.pdf ] Moon, Mars and Beyond How ‘big’ would would an interstellar spacecraft need to be ‘extragalactic Noah Ark spacecraft’ be to ‘transport all Earth life’ out-of Earth’s current solar system to ‘another planet’ chosen as ‘suitable for sustaining human life?

Chances are more than likely today, that while much of the public is convinced ‘no human being ( living on Earth today )’ might ‘endure travelling at the speed of light’ ( or ‘live long enough throughout light-speed light-year distances’ ), CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) primary purpose was to develop interstellar propulsion power, which was successfully found in 2004 on behalf of the RAYTHEON CORPORATION to have already filed several [ http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/6813330 ] U.S. Patents, one ( 1 ) patent of which subsequently led-up to the BOEING interstellar starship appearance on November 11, 2011 at a 1,000 foot altitude only a few miles south of RAYTHEON SAS ( El Segundo, California, USA ) and the Los Algeles Air Force Station Space Center, and 1-mile north of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve facility adjacent the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro, California but more specifically spotted by numerous witnesses at 8:15 p.m. navigating over Harbor City, California.

U.S. government secret spacecraft already travelling to other planets powered by already perfected CERN AntiHydrogen refinery fuel.

An anonymous individual indicated, “Yes, indeed!”

Reasons ‘why their so sure’?

1. Officially presented with officially-verified contract source text information;

2. Officially presented with officially-verified contract precise final diagramatics of the ‘interstellar propulsion antimatter containment tank’;

3. Officially presented with officially-verified color photographs of the antimatter propulsion system demonstrator test ( roof-mounted building bench test ) including color photo of opposing-positioned camera equipment; traced to multiple otherwise secret photographs; and,

4. Two ( 2 ) eyewitnesses whom together experienced ‘up-close’ ( less than 1,000-feet away ) and ‘very personal’ but short-viewing timeframe ( 15-minute ) of this particular U.S. antimatter propulsion interstellar spacecraft, a sharp-lined semi-flat and elongated version of what amounted to a “BattleStar Gallactica” ( former American television series and film ) but not as clumsy looking as the scapecraft depicted on the TV series. Anonymous individual, believes the spacecraft seen was nothing more than a U.S. National Reconnaissance Office Advanced Programs Long-Range Spacecraft – ‘not’ a “NOA ARC” as pictured elsewhere.

Exoplanetary Earth Life Seedings

Today ( 2012 ) it is no longer beyond belief and certainly within the realm of possibility to extragalactically transport, such things as ‘initial seedlings’:

A. “Early-Earth pure ( non-hybrid ) agricultural ( food ) seed storage;”

B. “Earth human genome structures ( genetic cryogenic ) storage;” and,

C. Humanoid tasking onboard spacecraft controls, certain experiments, and ‘other taskings’, See, e.g. International Space Station ( ISS ) Robonaut-2 ( R-2 ).

Earth Sudden Impact

Why are details being kept away-from the global public?

Ask ‘difficult questions’, be prepared for ‘soft information’, and don’t be surprised when you see what Anonymous witnessed with others.

Non-status-quo independent conceptualists are endangered low commodity human species government prefers not want to see poisioning its sheep.

Bah-bah black sheep, have you any ‘more’ wool – covering your eyes?

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault ( CARV ), Host
E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.com
WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

Research Note(s)

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19890001573_1989001573.pdf

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Vatican Observatory Intelligence

Vatican Observatory Intelligence

supernovae-smbh-uhecr-cherenkov-muon-grb-tau-air-shower2.jpg
[ IMAGE ( above ): Tau Air-Showers exhibiting Thomson scatter patterned Cherenkov muon light 'multi-mesenger' (  'atomic' photon oxygen molecule vaporizors carried with 'subatomic' neutrino ground penetrators ) astroparticles of Very-High Energy ( VHE ) to Ultra-High Energy ( UHE ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) jet streams known to be "Planetary Atmosphere Killers" when they are even as far-away as 1,000 lightyears from a planet. ( Click on image to enlarge ). ]

[ IMAGE ( above ) : X-Ray imaging composite photograph extragalactic view of  a multi-streaming Ultra-High-Energy ( UHE ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) of Cherenkov muon light radiation emminating out-of the accretion disk from within a Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) near Centaurus A ( Cen-A ) at NGC 5128 within the Virgo A constellation near the Galactic Center of our Universe ( Click on image to enlarge ). ]

[ IMAGE ( above ) : Closer view of Very-High-Energy ( VHE ) Gamma-Ray Photons seen here as not only globules of blue-white light but also a 'highly concentrated bursted stream of blue-white energetic particles' leaving from the Centaurus A region near the Galactic Center of our Universe ( Click on image to enlarge ). ]

Vatican Observatory Intelligence by, Concept Activity Research Vault

September 18, 2012 21:42:08 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: June 8, 2011 )

ARIZONA, Tucson – September 18, 2012 – Emanating from deep space, appearing through the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ), CHANDRA and more are certain galaxies referred to as ”Blue Galaxies”  emitting what only appear to be blue flashes of light believed Cerenkov radiation containing Very High-Energy gamma ray photons killing planetary atmosphere.

[ VIDEO ( above ): Click on image ( above ) - to play this 'official color video clip'. ]

Blue Galaxies

Photon Blue-White Pinprick Scatterings Killing Planetary Atmospheres

Within the Virgo A cluster of Scorpius-Centaur, Centaurus A ( CenA, NGC 5128, PKS 1322-427 ) emits a seriously significant Cherenkov ( Cerenkov ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) streaming blazar jet beam created by two ( 2 ) galaxies that collided eons ago in a rare ‘dual Supernova’ ( “Supernovae” ) explosion and implosion creating a Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) eequipped with an incredibly powerful engine force wherein the core engine weighs heavier than 3-billion of our Suns and compressed down into only a small diameter – the size of our solar system. This streaming jet blazar of Ultra High-Energy grew in length from 5,000-lightyears long to 14,000,000 lightyears long within only ’8-years Earth time’ ( from 2000 to 2008 ) and is travelling at six ( 6 ) times faster than lightspeed.

This extrelely hot bright blue-white beam is uniquely closer to Earth than anything like it in our galactic universe, but there is a far greater threat than this dangerous ray beam that is secretly known as a “Planetary Atmosphere Killer” easily capable of ‘instantly burning-up all oxygen molecules’ when it reaches 1,000 light-years from Earth.

The best way to describe the Centaurus A streaming GRB jet blue-white blazar light burst, which is brighter than 100 of our Sun’s luminosity approaching Earth, was what astronomer Bruce Balick, wrote descriptively:

“Here on Earth, we’ll feel the wind of the ejected gases, sweeping past slowly – at first ( a mere 5-miles per second ) – and then picking up speed as the spasms continue to eventually reach 1,000-miles per second. The remnant Sun will rise as a dot ( no larger than Venus ) of intensely ( more brilliant than 100 present-Suns ) hot ( hotter than any welder’s torch ) light colored ‘blue-white’. Light, from this ‘fiendish blue pinprick’, will braise the Earth and ‘tear apart its surface molecules and atoms’. A ‘new but very thin atmosphere’ ( of ‘free electrons’ ) will form, as the Earth’s surface turns to dust.”

[ IMAGE ( above ): AMS-02 space-based monitoring Very-High-Energy ( VHE ) Gamma-Ray Photon Particles ( "Cosmic Rays" - invisible  to the naked eye ) pulse out-of Blue Galaxies across space as 'bright blue-white pin-pricks of light' that are 'planetary atmosphere killers' that scatter enroute  to a planetary surface like Earth's ( Click on image to enlarge ). ]

[ IMAGE ( above ): Galactic Center depicting Centaurus A and more. Click on image to enlarge. ]

Looking Through Different Glasses

Early Vatican Telescopes ( also known as )  “Lookers”

Vatican Observatories

The world’s oldest and largest astrological telescope ( above ) was operated from the Vatican Observatory within the Vatican summer home (  in Castel Gandolfo, Italy – below ) for all Holy Roman Catholic Church Popes.

Earliest Vatican Astrological Observatory

[ IMAGE ( above ): Color image of earliest Vatican Observatory ( Castel Gandolfo, Italy ) plus black and white image of its Specola Tower section. ( Click on images to enlarge ) ]

Current Vatican Astronomical Observatory & LUCIFER Telescope

Vatican Cosmic Secret

The Vatican has several observatory telescopes, the most of which is depicted ( immediately above ), the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) is world renowned for having installed the first L.U.C.I.F.E.R. ( LUCIFER ) mirror prototype in its observatory atop Mt. Graham in Arizona ( USA ) adjacent to Steward Observatory Telescope housing the ’other’ “Large binocular telescope near-infrared Utility with camera and Integral Field unit for Extragalactic Research” ( LUCIFER ), a twin horned mirror system believed monitoring a deep-space advanced program secret, believed to be the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS-02 ) – recently placed permanently outside the International Space Station ( ISS ) in connection with the ground-based CERN project in Europe.

What deep space project could possibly be so important requiring billions during a global econ0mic crisis?

Why deep space project requires so much secrecy too surrounding what exactly observatory telescope mirrors are all working on?

Why are two ( 2 ) observatories, located right next to each other ( on the same mountain top ), looking into deep space?

Why the Vatican? Why use multiple millions of dollars taken from parishoner money donations to feed the poor and homeless around the world and instead fund a deep space observatory telescope looking into thin air at something we on Earth are helpless to do anything about while people are starving to death around the world? Sound cruel?

Why the U.S. government? Why use multiple millions of American citizen taxpayer monies to do the same thing the Vatican is doing when people are living in unsanitary conditions, lack medical supplies and dying from disease around the world, but who is feeding whom?

For what or whose end purpose is this serving? The ‘people’s? God’s? Alien’s? Come on, get real. Things like this do not occur – unless there is an Earth shattering global reason for doing this so, what is the public ‘not being told about’ ?

Why are ‘both deep-space astronomical observatory telescopes’  shrouded in secrecy?

What do they call ‘taking billions in monies from investors without informing shareholders what their money is being used-for’ considered?

What are the facts?

[ PHOTO ( above ) : Same position but using 'optical imaging' one can still see the Very-High-Energy ( VHE ) gamma-ray photons streaming out of Galactic Center of Universe near Centaurus A, but is this VHE gamma-ray photon burst 'killer of atmospheres' headed toward Earth? If so, when will it arrive on Earth? ( Click on image to enlarge ) ]

Deep Space Observatory Telescope FACT

The Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope Array ( CTA ) [ NOTE: begun in 1992, as the HEGRA Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope System ] is designated a large ground-based telescope array for deep space projects detecting ‘blue flashes of Cerenkov radiation’ caused by ‘Very-High-Energy’ ( VHE ) ’gamma-ray photons’, that kill planetary atmosphere, from certain distant galaxies.

The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System [ AGIS ], U.S. version, was considered too expensive ( more than $400,000,000 million ) so, the U.S. was to share costs and operations of CTA designed to explore a wide variety of particle accelerators in the Universe, from nearby :

Galaxies ( clusters ); Gamma Ray ( bursts ); Galactic Nuclei ( active ); Stellar Winds; Pulsars; Supernova; and, Micro – Quasars.

[ IMAGE ( above ): Astroparticle Physics - Very High Energy ( VHE ) gamma-ray photon particle atmosphere killers and gravitational wave messenger deflector arrays. Click on image to enlarge ). ]

The FACT Project

In 2010, FACT consisted of a new technology camera mounted at the focus of one ( 1 ) of the former HEGRA telescopes so, the Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope Array ( CTA ) is becoming an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope ( IACT ).

G-APDs [ Geiger-mode Avalanche PhotoDiodes ] have more robust efficiency detecting photons coming from galaxies, and the first G-APD [ Geiger-mode Avalanche PhotoDiodes ] Cherenkov Telescope ( FACT ) is a joint effort of two ( 2 ) countries ( e.g. Switzerland and Germany ) with contributions from a variety of institutes, including:

ETH Zürich; TU Dortmund; ISDC ( INTEGRAL Science Data Centre for Astrophysics – Versoix, Switzerland ); EPFL; Humboldt-Universität Berlin; Ruhr-Universität Bochum; Technische Universität Dortmund; Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg; Universität Hamburg; MPI für Kernphysik, Heidelberg; Landessternwarte Heidelberg; MPI für Physik, München; Universität Potsdam; Universität Tübingen; Universität Würzburg; and, Deutsches-Elektronen-Synchrotron ( DESY ) Zeuthen ( Hamburg, Germany ); and, More

Deep space observations trigger follow-up ‘observations of extragalactic blue flares’ from telescopes with ‘higher sensitivity’, e.g. MAGIC, VERITAS, and HESS.

[ PHOTO ( above ) : Vatican Observatory (also known as ) Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) near Safford, Arizona, USA. ]

VATT

The Holy Roman Catholic Church Vatican placed its U.S. based astronomical observatory telescope – known as the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) – near Safford, Arizona high atop Mount Graham off highway State Route 366 ( SR 366 ) in the middle of the desert ( see photo above ). While VATT saw some U.S. controversy, even more questions now are beginning to surface.

Vatican Observatory History -

[ PHOTO ( above ) : Vatican Observatory ( near Castel Gandolfo, Italy - the Summer residence of Popes for decades ). ]

Directed by the Jesuits, the Holy Roman Catholic Church ‘astronomical telescope observatory’ had been ‘headquartered’ near the ‘Summer residence of the Popes’ at Castel Gandolfo, Italy where the Vatican Observatory has remained one of the ‘oldest astronomical research institutions in the World’, however today – according to Vatican officials – it now remains only a “historical point of Vatican astronomical investigation reference.”

[ IMAGE ( above ): Vatican Observatory at Papal Gardens, 1-mile south of Castel Gondolfo, Italy ( click to enlarge ) ]

Vatican Observatory New Headquarters Center -

In 2009, about 1-mile ‘south’ of the Summer residence of the Popes ( Castel Gandolfo, Italy ), the Holy Roman Catholic Church publicly announced its ‘new center’, providing:

- Jesuit community space separate from students and researchers; – Library; – Conference room; and, – More classrooms.

The Papal Gardens ( 1-mile south of Castel Gandolfo, Italy ) is where another Vatican Observatory is located. The dome ( image immediately above – on left ) is where the 26-inch ( 65 centimeter ) diameter f/3.7 Schmidt telescope is located, and the other dome ( image immediately above – on right ) is where the Carte du Ciel telescope is located.

[ PHOTO ( above ): Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) Observatory atop Mt. Graham near Safford, Arizona, USA. ]

Vatican Observatory USA

The Holy Roman Catholic Church Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ), is located in yet another Vatican Observatory and this one is located in the United States desert region near Safford, Arizona atop the wintertime snow capped peak known as Mount Graham ( Mt. Graham ) whereon it additionally hosts the Steward Observatory.

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Source: UA News – University of Arizona ( Tucson, Arizona, USA )

Cardinal Who Oversees The Vatican Observatory Will Visit Tucson by, Lori Stiles ( Office of Communications – University of Arizona )

January 28, 2009

Catholic church Cardinal Lajolo will visit Vatican astronomers at the University of Arizona. His Eminence Giovanni Lajolo – president of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican State city in Italy – will visit the offices of the Vatican Observatory Research Group ( VORG ) at the University of Arizona ( UA ) Steward Observatory while in Tucson, Arizona next month ( February 2009 ). Being the executive in charge, of day-to-day running of the Vatican City, Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo reports about the Vatican Observatory directly to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI.

Vatican astronomers announced his ( Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo ) visit, which will occur February 26, 2009 through February 28, 2009. While in Tucson, Cardinal Lajolo is set to visit the University of Arizona ( UA ) on February 26, 2009. Cardinal Lajolo will also attend the Vatican Observatory Foundation Board meeting, annual seminar and awards dinner during his stay, said Vatican astronomers.

Cardinal Lajolo’s visit coincides with the International Year of Astronomy 2009, and “signifies the unique interest which the Holy See has towards its scientific research institute” based in Tucson, Arizona,” Vatican Observatory Director José Funes, S.J. ( Society of Jesus / a Jesuit priest ) and Vatican Observatory Public Relations Coordinator Guy Consolmagno, S.J. ( Society of Jesus / a Jesuit priest ), said in a news announcement.

“We have enjoyed an extremely productive collaboration with the Vatican Observatory in astronomical research and education for almost 30-years,” said Steward Observatory director Peter Strittmatter – professor of astronomy for the University of Arizona Regents.

Peter Strittmatter additionally noted that Steward Observatory University of Arizona faculty members have participated in the Vatican Observatory Summer Schools and that Vatican Observatory astronomers contribute to the University of Arizona astronomy education program. “We are delighted that Cardinal Lajolo will be visiting the UA campus to see for himself the excellent research environment which the Vatican Observatory Research Group ( VORG ) enjoys at Steward Observatory,” Strittmatter said.

In 1582, the era of Pope Gregory who reformed the calendar, the origin of the Vatican Observatory has been traced back that far as ‘one of the oldest astronomical observatories in the world’.

In 1935, the Vatican Observatory was headquartered at all Pope’s summer home in Castel Gandolfo, Italy.

In 1980, the Vatican Observatory opened its ‘dependent research center’ known as the Vatican Observatory Research Group ( VORG ) to take advantage of the world renowned astronomical facilities in southern Arizona ( USA ) where VORG is based at Steward Observatory ( part of the University of Arizona ).

In 1986, the University of Arizona astronomy faculty began helping teach many Vatican Observatory summer schools ( Castel Gandolfo, Italy ).

In 1993, Vatican astronomers inaugurated the Lennon Telescope ( 1.8 meters in diameter ) in southeastern Arizona with the Vatican adjoining Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility – altogether known as the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) located within the Mount Graham International Observatory ( MGIO ) complex.

The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) is a major Vatican astronomical tool used to study planetary sciences, stellar astronomy, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology.

The Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory ( Tucson, Arizona ) giant rotating furnace casted and polished ( using ‘stressed lap technology’ ) the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) observatory mirror, that was the ‘L.U.C.I.F.E.R. mirror prototype’ for the Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) as well as other world class telescopes.

Jusuit priests Jose Funes and Guy Consolmagno said that during the Cardinal Lajolo ( who speaks Italian, German, English and French ) visit to the U.S., he will meet with the University of Arizona ‘technical staff responsible for developing’ the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ), and then will later travel to Washington, D.C. where on March 2, 2009 – at the Apostolic Nunciature – he will attend a reception hosted by the Vatican ambassador ( i.e. Papal Nuncio ) to the United States of America.

The Vatican Observatory ( also known as ) “Specola Vaticana” is organizing special events during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, and one ( 1 ) event involves several University of Arizona astronomy faculty members in June 2009 for a 1-week long international symposium attracting past participants and alumni of Vatican Observatory summer schools ( Castel Gandolfo, Italy ) to discuss 21st Century roles of astronomers, astronomy and ongoing research projects.

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[ PHOTO ( above ): "Large binocular telescope near-infrared Utility with camera and Integral Field unit for Extragalactic Research" ( LUCIFER ) twin horned mirrors ( Top View ) inside the Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) at Steward Observatory ( click to enlarge ) ]

[ PHOTO ( above ): "Large binocular telescope near-infrared Utility with camera and Integral Field unit for Extragalactic Research" ( LUCIFER ) twin horned mirrors ( Side View ) for the Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) at Steward Observatory ( click to enlarge ) ]

Mt. Graham LUCIFER Mirrors -

On April 22, 2010 Steward Observatory conducted a ‘press tour’ allowing only a select few people ’inside’ to view the ‘red color twin horn mounted’ high-technology telescope mirrors curiously named, the: ”Large binocular telescope near-infrared Utility with camera and Integral Field unit for Extragalactic Research” ( also known as ) ”LUCIFER” ( also known as ) ”Large Binocular Telescope” ( LBT ).

Upon Steward Observatory press guests being escorted ‘outside’ and up a hill to a key ’observation point’ overlooking a picturesque landscape looking downward just beyond and a little to the left of Steward Observatory ( with LUCIFER inside ), just above tree-top level appears an arch that glistens like silver under Sun whereupon the Steward Observatory guide asked the press group if they had any questions.

One press guest woman asked, “Do you see that archway there?”

The Steward Observatory press guide replied, “That silver thing? ( followed by a short delay ) That’s the Vatican telescope.”

Beginning at approximately 1-minute and 35-seconds into an official Steward Observatory Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) color video clip ( immediately below ) of the aforementioned press tour, the aforementioned question and answer is heard in-addition to visual film footage documentation of the location and proximity of the Vatican Observatory in relationship to its LUCIFER mirror LBT information sharing neighbor of the Steward Observatory ( see immediately below ):

[ VIDEO ( above ): Click on image ( above ) to start playing 'this official color video clip'. ]

Cloaked under the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility named ”Mount Graham International Observatory” ( MGIO ), the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) is a 1.8-meter telescope located inside this Mt. Graham mountain Vatican Observatory near Safford, Arizona.

Extragalactic Research -

[ IMAGE ( above ): Gravitational Lensing - Color Diagramatic ( click to enlarge ) ]

Mount Graham International Observatory ( MGIO ) -

America’s southwest State of Arizona Coronado National Forest Pinaleño Mountains highest peak is known as “Mount Graham” ( also known as ) “High Peak” reaching an elevation of 10,720 feet ( 3,267 meters ) within the County of Graham. Mt. Graham summits are headwaters for numerous perennial streams running through five ( 5 ) major botanical zones.

In 1988, the U.S. Congress authorized construction of astronomical telescope observatories on Mt. Graham where some of the clearest skies in the world exist and precisely where the Mount Graham International Observatory ( MGIO ) exists, e.g. Vatican Observatory – Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ), Steward Observatory – Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT – LUCIFER ) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope – LSST, Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope ( HHST ),  and where multiple organizations have also set up large astronomical telescopes in a few separate observatories that were authorized by a U.S. Congress ‘rare peace time waiver of United States environmental laws’.

Mount Graham International Observatory ( MGIO ) is opposed by environmental groups, including the Sierra Club, because Mt. Graham higher elevations are considered the last remaining habitat for the endangered species known as the Mount Graham Red squirrel. Mt. Graham was biologically isolated for thousands of years with its higher elevation providing refuge for surviving populations of plants and animals with adaptive root strategies dating back to environmental conditions of the Pleistocene Ice Age ( 2,000,000 million years ago ) where today there still exists old growth forest stands of the oldest conifer trees in the southwest United States as well as associated habitats for threatened and endangered species.

In 1993, at the base of Mt. Graham, St. Paisius Orthodox Monastery was founded.

There has also been outcry from four ( 4 ) federally recognized Native American indian tribes of the Western Apache Nation and other Native American groups whom consider the site of Mt. Graham to be sacred. Mt. Graham is near the northern limit of the Chiricahua Apache Native American homeland and southern margins of Western Apache territory, the range is one of the Western Apache’s four ( 4 ) holiest mountains – considered sacred by all regional Native people. Mt. Graham is located between the southern Rocky Mountain range of America and the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range of Mexico.

Steward Observatory – Astronomy Observatory Gatekeeper -

Steward Observatory, however hosts the “Vatican Observatory Research Group” at the University of Arizona ( UofA ), in-addition to other Arizona astronomical observatories that, include:

- Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) at Vatican Observatory ( Arizona, USA ); – Large Binocular Telescope Observatory ( LBT ) at Steward Observatory ( Arizona, USA ); – Large Synoptic Survey Telescope ( LSST ) at Steward Observatory ( Arizona, USA ); – Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory ( MMT ) at MMT Observatory ( Arizona, USA ); and, – Kitt Peak National Observatory ( Arizona, USA ).

Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope ( VATT ) telescope mirrors were fabricated in Germany based on information supplied from the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory in Arizona, USA and elsewhere.

Steward Observatory hosts the ‘twin’ LUCIFER mirrors referred to as the observatory of the World famous Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) consisting of two ( 2 ) 8.4 meter ( 27.6 foot ) diameter mirror telescopes brought into existence by the LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE CORPORATION list of sponsors ( below ):

- RESEARCH CORPORATION FOR SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT ( Ohio, USA ); – LANDENSTERNWARTE ( Heidelberg, GERMANY ); – LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft ( GERMANY ); – Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie ( Heidelberg, GERMANY ); – Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam ( GERMANY ); – Max Planck Institut fur Extraterrestriche Physik ( Munich, GERMANY ); – Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie ( Bonn, GERMANY ); – Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica ( ITALY ); – University of Ohio ( Ohio, USA ); – University of Virginia ( Virginia, USA ); – University of Notre Dame ( Indiana, USA ); – University of Minnesota ( Minnesota, USA ); – University of Arizona ( Arizona, USA ); – Arizona State University ( Arizona, USA ); and, – Northern Arizona University ( Arizona, USA ).

LUCIFER telescope mirror cameras are, for:

- Direct Imaging ( DI ); – Long Slit Spectroscopy ( LSS ); and, – Multi-Object Spectroscopy ( MOS ).

Vatican Observatory LUCIFER Telescope Worries Confused Catholics -

Holy Roman Catholic Church faith may be slowly redefining its postion on ’extraterrestrial life forms’ ( alien beings / biological entities ) as God’s children too, according to Jesuit priests studying Vatican Observatory information on the Universe, now surfacing into what has become an international religious controversy.

For centuries Catholics, led by priests teaching, parishoners were taught ‘they were the only children in the Universe put on Earth by God’, however now with the Vatican recognizing that just 10-years ago ( 1999 ) the Universe for some unknown reason is ‘expanding’ are considering there may be ’other life forms’ ( alien beings ) as well as Earthling human beings sprinkled throughout the Universe from God. ( see video clips below ):

Vatican Chief Astronomer Catholic Jesuit Father Jose Gabriel Funes ( below ):

Vatican Catholic Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo ( below ):

Vatican Curia ( Governing Body ) Catholic Monsignor Corrado Balducci ( below ):

Vatican expert and noted author Catholic Father Malachi Martin ( below ):

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Vatican Official Declares On National Television: Extraterrestrial Contact Is Real by, Richard Boylan, Ph.D.

June, 1999

Monsignor Corrado Balducci ( seen in video immediately above ), a theologian member of the Vatican Curia ( governing body ), and an insider close to the Pope, has gone on Italy national television five ( 5 ) times, including recent months, to proclaim that extraterrestrial contact is a real phenomenon.

Monsignor Balducci provided an analysis of extraterrestrials that he feels is consistent with the Catholic Church understanding of theology, emphasizing that extraterrestrial encounters “are NOT demonic, they are not due to psychological impairment, they are not a case of entity attachment, but these encounters deserve to be studied carefully.”

Since Monsignor Balducci is a demonology expert and consultant to the Vatican, and since the Catholic Church has historically demonized many new phenomena that were poorly understood, Balducci’s stating the Church does not censure these encounters is all the more remarkable.

Corrado Balducci revealed to a visiting professional from America that the Vatican is closely following this phenomenon quietly.

Speculation originally surmised the Vatican was receiving much information about extraterrestrials and their contacts with humans from its Nunciatures ( embassies ) in various countries, however subsequent information indicates Monsignor Corrado Balducci received his cases from other sources.

Monsignor Balducci is a member of a group acting as consultants to the Vatican on various matters concerning humans in possible contact with supernatural beings, and as such, the matter of extraterrestrial encounters would fall within their purview, and possibly as well the spiritual significance of the emerging general realization of extraterrestrial contact.

Parallel information from National Security Council ( NSC ) scientist Dr. Michael Wolf, a member of the NSC’s SSG subcommittee for managing the UFO phenomenon, as well as from noted author and Vatican expert Father Malachi Martin, suggests the Vatican is concerned it will have a major doctrinal updating situation on its hands when extraterrestrial contact becomes authoritatively announced by world governments over the next several years.

Parenthetically, it can be observed the Vatican Curia member declarations on Italy national television represent technically the first ( 1st ) declaration by an official of a major power government ( Vatican ), even if “speaking as an individual”, that extraterrestrial contact is real and happening – deserves serious study.

Whitley Strieber has just come out with a new book, “Confirmation”, which features an interview, in which Monsignor Balducci makes additional striking comments about the extraterrestrials as probably superior spiritual beings.

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According to a recent Steward Observatory ( Safford, Arizona, USA ) film, the Universe was only 10-years ago just discovered to be “expanding” in 1999.

In 1999, Jesuit Priest Malachi Martin, a 30-year Vatican commentator and advisor of three ( 3 ) Popes was interviewed and asked ‘why’ The Holy Roman Catholic Church Vatican built a multi-million dollar astronomy observatory in Arizona – in connection with the University of Arizona ( UofA ). Rev. Fr. Malachi Martin said, “The mentality, amongst those who are at the higher level, of Vatican Administration know that now the knowledge of what’s going on in space – and what’s approaching us – could be of great importance in the next five ( 5 ) to ten ( 10 ) years ( i.e. 2004 to 2010 ).

What was ‘it’ that theVaticanbegan preparing for 10-years ago in 1999?

Why is much of the Vatican Observatory prohibited from access?

Why is the University of Arizona ( UofA ) being allowed to be used by the Vatican?

Theories abound with speculation over several mysteries. From recent revelations to the public from Jesuit priests speaking about extraterrestrial matters to the relatively new Vatican Observatory information being fed through the Steward Observatory red-colored twin horned mirrors named LUCIFER atop the same mountain inArizonawhere they both are located.

There are more people growing convinced each day, based on new revelations, this all has something to do with an “Earth Event” coming that is being kept quiet from the public by governments. People that are rich and educated to those poor with little education are labeled by governments as being ”conspiracy theorists” and/or “doomsday sayers.”

You be the judge ( color video clip samples below ):

Multiplex Technology – used in the LUCIFER mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope ( LBT ) inside the Steward Observatory – was ‘developed’ at Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ( Munich, GERMANY ), and these specially designed mirrors possess an inherent adapatability design feature allowing the mirrors to ‘grow’ even-more technologically advanced than they already are today.

In early 2011, an Adaptive Optic Secondary Mirror System ( AOSMS ) instrument for a 36-inch diameter by ( x ) 1.6 millimeter thick mirror for use on ”defraction-limited” cases was to be added at Steward Observatory.

New Catholic “Scientific-Religion” or Vatican Style Scientology?

In 1990, the Vatican Observatory ( VO ) together with its 25-year old Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences ( CTNS ) co-sponsored a series of international research ventures in a Joint Program known as its Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action ( SPDA ) that began engaging relationships with some of the most respected and well-known research on “theology” and “natural sciences,” however the Vatican Observatory and CTNS continued their Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action ( SPDA ) Program mission through another CTNS-VO collaboration project that was ‘moving behind and prior-to’ their already widely discussed problem of theodicy – namely within the context of “moral evil” they now cite as having somehow been “routinely overlooked” so, they are now identifying “natural evil,” as:

- Suffering; – Disease; – Death; – Extinction; and, – More.

The Vatican Observatory ( VO ) and Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences ( CTNS ) feel ‘these aforementioned problems’ are targeted better at the level of ‘physics’ and ‘cosmology’ where CTNS-VO now cites “natural evil” as being the ‘refiguration-of’ and ‘precondition-for’ being the “moral evil” underlying the structures within the ‘fundamental laws of nature’ they now predict is ‘moving into’ “evolution” and “genetics” as being “biological roots of moral evil.”

“Science” and “Religion” separately no more, according to the Vatican Observatory ( VO ) a “Science-Religion” has been developed by its Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences ( CTNS ) continually attracting ‘theologians’, ‘religious scholars’, ‘ethicists’, ‘philosophers’, ‘historians’ and ‘natural scientists’ in discussions the Vatican Observatory ( VO ) believes is fostering a ‘new legacy of mutually enriching scholarship’ with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences ( CTNS ) to continually serve as the ‘foundation’ for a “Science-Religion.”

[ IMAGE ( above ): Galileo Galilei. ]

Galileo Galilei, the 17th century Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution, scored achievements including improvements to the ‘telescope’ and consequential astronomical observations. Galileo also supported Copernicanism ( Copernicus ).

Galileo was called the “father of modern observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, the “father of science”, and “the father of modern science.” After 1610, however Galileo began publicly supporting the view of ‘heliocentricism’ – placing the Sun at the center of the Universe – and that met with bitter opposition from members of the Catholic Church clergy whom denounced Galileo during the Roman Inquisition in early 1615. In February 1616, the Catholic Church condemned Galileo as being “false and contrary to Scripture.” Galileo defended his heliocentric viewpoint by publishing ( 1632 ) his “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems,” which the Roman Inquisition tried Galileo for. Galileo was found “vehemently suspect of heresy” and Galileo was sentenced to life imprisonment under house arrest.

The new Catholic science-religion appears still shrouded in secrecy, with speculation about its new name or just where it plans on taking the rest of Catholicism. Some suggest the new Catholic identifier may become known as Cathocosmologists, Cathoastrophysicists, but more outcry will surface as Papal authorities lean toward cannonizing Saint Galileo.

Some believe the Catholic Church will begin baptizing its ‘New Order’ sect – undoubtedly selected ‘highly-esteemed professional science-religionologists’ that will become known as Catho-AstroPhysicists, Catho-BioGeneticists, et al.

The Catholic Church radical departure away from traditional Roman Catholicism is a trend cleverly and subtly designed to lead followers away from their belief that “God is the center of the Universe.”

Many in the world today are eyeing all this very suspiciously and vowing ‘not’ to be caught, as the Vatican Observatory cites, ‘somehow overlooking’ any ‘moral evil’ albeit pontificated by the Vatican or any other global government of decisionmakers.

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

References

http://newsinfo.nd.edu/news/19059-large-binocular-telescope-director-speaks-on-latest-astronomy-research/ http://www.lsw.uni-heidelberg.de/news/lbt-comm.php?lang=en http://baryon.as.arizona.edu/ http://erc.nd.edu/blogs/krueff/2010/03/ http://www.lbto.org http://www.mmto.org http://www.noao.edu/kpno/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Graham http://www.greatdreams.com/ufos/vatican.htm http://uanews.org/node/23655 http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/1000015.htm http://www.ctns.org/research.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei

AntiMatter Technology Problems

AntiMatter Technology Problems

 

AntiMatter Technology Problems by, Concept Activity Research Vault

May 16, 2011 09:42:4 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: May 10, 2011 )

CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles – May 16, 2011 – The global scientific community is eyeing suspiciously a 1952 ‘experimental projects’ organization known as the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire ( CERN ) [ ( also known as ) European Organization for Nuclear Research ] wherein its Large Hadron Collider ( LHC ) consists of a huge 27-mile in diameter high-energy particle collider is conducting some extremely serious experiments involving what scientists and physicisys say involves something called a “CP-violation” that deals with creating a variety of new subatomic particles that are believed to have never existed anywhere on Earth.

There is quite a bit of controversy concerning something called a “strangelet” ( strangelets ) and other particle creations within the CERN experiment, which because of conjectures in scientific theories are feared by some professionals, could create a ’new subatomic particle’ that may upset the balance of Earth as we know it, and what is even more frightening is that if something goes out-of-control, it may take anywhere between 1-year to 5-years ‘before anyone notices a chain reaction having already been created that some have already identified as a ‘micro-blackhole’ that could theoretically begin consuming Earth from within its own magnetic iron core. Sounding like ‘science fiction’, apparently CERN experiments are ’definitely not’ something to be taken lightly.

This serious and highly controversial subject amongst scientists and physicists around the world is being touched-on in this report, amongst other related information, amongst which includes video clips ( below ) for better understanding some of the many aspects for public knowledge not being addressed by mainstream news broadcasts.

CERN went even further, though, by expanding its deep underground experiments to conduct related experiments in outerspace within what it calls the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS-02 ) now scheduled for launch aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavor STS-134 mission set for May 16, 2011. The AMS-02 is, however, to be delivered to the International Space Station ( ISS ) where it will continue CERN designated experiments.

Interestingly, during July 2010 the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS02 ) was ‘not’ launched as the video clip ( above ) depicted. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS-02 ), being equated to that of the Hubble space telescope, actually holds far more technological advancements from CERN and is solely designed to focus on subatomic particles surrounding antimatter issues.

U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavor mission STS-134 was scheduled to launch on April 14, 2011 but was delayed until the end of April 2011, but then was delayed yet again until May 16, 2011. Why so many delays and reschedulings?

Earth anti-matter issues are rarely addressed by the mainstream news media with the public, however in-lieu of the recent NASA public warning that it is expecting a ‘significant’ “solar flare” to erupt, coming bound for Earth, as something “we all need to be concerned about,” the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) having just been recently placed onboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour mission – scheduled to deliver the AMS aboard the International Space Station ( ISS ) – is something the public really needs to take a closer look at.

[ PHOTO ( above ): Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS-02 ) in U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour cargo bay April 2011 ( click to enlarge ) ]

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Source: Nature.Com

AntiUniverse Here We Come by, Eugenie Samuel Reich

May 4, 2011

A controversial cosmic ray detector destined for the International Space Station will soon get to prove its worth.

The next space-shuttle launch will inaugurate a quest for a realm of the Universe that few believe exists.

Nothing in the laws of physics rules out the possibility that vast regions of the cosmos consist mainly of anti-matter, with anti-galaxies, anti-stars, even anti-planets populated with anti-life.

“If there’s matter, there must be anti-matter. The question is, where’s the Universe made of antimatter?” says Professor Samuel C.C. Ting, a Nobel prize winning physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. But most physicists reason that if such antimatter regions existed, we would have seen the light emitted when the particles annihilated each other along the boundaries between the antimatter and the matter realms. No wonder the Professor Samuel C.C. Ting brainchild, a $2,000,000,000 billion dollar space mission was sold ‘partly on the promise of looking for particles emanating from anti-galaxies’, is fraught with controversy.

Professor Ting’s project, however has other ‘more mainstream scientific goals’ so, most critics of which held their tongues last week as the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-134 mission – prepared to deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS version, known as the AMS-02 ) to the International Space Station ( ISS ) – flight was delayed ( because of problems ) until later this month ( May 2011 ).

Pushing The Boundaries

Seventeen ( 17 ) years in the making, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) is a product of the former NASA administrator Dan Goldin quest to find remarkable science projects for the Internation Space Station ( ISS ) and of the Ting fascination with anti-matter.

Funded by NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ), plus a sixteen ( 16 ) country consortium of partners, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) has prevailed – despite delays and technical problems – along with the doubts of many high-energy and particle physicists.

“Physics is not about doubt,” says Roberto Battiston, deputy spokesman for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) and physicist at the University of Perugia, Italy. “It is about precision measurement.”

As the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) experiment headed to the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch pad, Roberto Battiston and other scientists were keen to emphasize the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) ‘unprecedented sensitivity’ to the gamut of cosmic rays, that rain down on Earth, that should allow the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) to perform two ( 2 ) things:

1. Measure Cosmic Ray High-Energy Charged ‘Particles’ and ‘Properties’ ( thereof ), sent from:

- Sun ( Earth’s ); – Supernovae ( distant ); and, – γ-ray bursts.

AND,

2. Detect AntiMatter ( errant chunks ), sent from the:

a. Universe ( far-away ).

Cosmic rays ( on Earth ) can only be indirectly detected by their showers of ‘secondary particles’ produced – when slamming into molecules of atmosphere in high regions above the Earth, but the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) in space will get an undistorted view.

“We’ll be able to measure ( solar ) Cosmic Ray Flux very precisely,” says collaboration member physicist Fernando Barão of the Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particle Physics in Lisbon, Spain. “The best place ( for detecting this ) is to be in ‘space’ because you don’t have Earth’s atmosphere that is going to destroy those cosmic rays.”

No matter what happens, with the more speculative search for antimatter, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) should produce a definitive map of the cosmic ray sky – helping to build a kind of ‘astronomy not dependent on light’.

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) consists of a powerful permanent magnet surrounded by a suite of particle detectors.

Over 10-years ( or more ), that the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) experiment will run, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) magnet will bend the paths of cosmic rays by an amount that reveals their energy and charge, thereby their identity.

Some will be ‘heavy atomic nuclei’, while others ( made from anti-matter ), will reveal themselves by ‘bending in the opposite direction’ from their ‘matter’ counterparts ( see, e.g. cosmic curveballs ).

By ‘counting positrons’ ( i.e. antimatter ‘electrons’ ), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) could also ‘chase a tentative signal of dark matter’, the so-far ‘undetected stuff’ thought to account for ‘much of the mass of the Universe’.

In 2009, Russia and Italy researchers – with the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics ( PAMELA ) onboard a Russia satellite – published evidence of an ‘excess amount of positrons in the space environment surrounding Earth’ ( O. Adriani et al. Nature 458 , 607–609; 2009 ). One potential source of this is the ‘annihilation of dark-matter particles’ within the ‘halo enveloping our Galaxy’.

Another speculative quest, is to follow up on hints of ‘strange matter’, a ‘hypothetical substance’ that should be found in ‘some collapsed stars’ containing ‘strange quarks’, ‘up quarks’ and ‘down quarks’ – within ordinary nuclei.

NASA Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) program manager Mark Sistilli says hints of ‘strange matter’ were seen – during a 1998 pilot flight of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS-01 ) aboard the Space Shuttle, however NASA determined results ‘too tentative to publish’.

Because the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS / AMS-02 ) status was made as an “exploration mission,” the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) ‘did not need to follow’ “peer review” NASA would ‘normally have required’ for a ”science mission.”

But Sistilli emphasizes the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ( AMS ) earned flying colors from committees convened by the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ), which is supplying $50,000,000 million of the funding.

Now their ( DOE ) confidence will be put to the test.

Reference

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110504/full/473013a.html

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While for some it may appear strangelet subatomic antimatter particle research is for advancing our knowledge of unlocking the secrets of life in the Universe, others are still asking NASA what they really know is behind ‘why’ an ‘expected significant’ Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) is something “we all need to be concerned about” on Earth.

With Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) high-energy effects capable of disrupting Earth ground-based and space-based electrical components and electricity grid infrastructure systems for up to 10-years, many wonder why billions upon billions of dollars were and are still being pumped into the CERN project studying ‘strangelets’ and want to know just why we need ‘more immediate information detection capabilities’ on high-energy solar flare proton and electron ejections coming toward Earth soon, which NASA and other agencies ‘know far more about’ than they are willing to tell the public.

How advanced has government authorities grown from private-sector science and technology knowledge? The United States has already mapped internal magma flows of the Sun.

How could the U.S. government possibly ‘see inside the Sun’ to know when a coronal mass ejection from a solar flare would occur in the future?

In layman terms, for government it was like looking through a clear glass Pyrex bowl positioned atop a stove burner, watching as water starts to boil inside it, and then predicting – based on the flame heating it the water – when bubbles will come to the surface, when one takes into account a government ’ground-based’ ( does ‘not’ require ‘space-based placement’ ) observatory telescope equipped with a “super lens” used for imaging ( observing ) ‘objects at great distances inside matter’ – a “superlens” that now even ‘defies light-speed’ and ‘matter’. ( Read Below )

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[ PHOTO ( above ): Antimatter photon 'optic' substrate structure material for 'subsurface solar imaging plasma flows' inside Sun enables plotting Coronal Mass Ejections 'before solar surface eruptions' ( click to enlarge ) ]

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Operated by the University of California

Optical Antimatter Structure Shows The Way For New Super Lens by, Aditi Risbud

April 21, 2009

A device, made from alternating layers of ‘air’ and ‘silicon photonic crystal’, behaves like a ‘super lens’ – providing the first experimental demonstration of optical antimatter.

Scientists at Berkeley Lab ( Berkeley, California, USA ) and the Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems ( CNR ) in Naples, Italy have experimentally demonstrated – for the first time – the ‘concept of optical antimatter’ by ‘light traveling through a material without being distorted’.

By engineering a material focusing light through its own internal structure, a beam of light can enter and exit ( unperturbed ) after traveling through millimeters of material.

For years, optics researchers have struggled to bypass the ‘diffraction limit’, a physical law restricting imaging resolution to about 1/2 the wavelength of light used to make the image.

If a material with a negative index of refraction ( a property describing how light bends as it enters or exits a material ) could be designed, this diffraction hurdle could be lowered.

Such a material could also behave as a superlens, useful in observing objects from imaging equipment with ‘details finer than allowed by the diffraction limit’, a physical law restricting imaging resolution to about 1/2 the wavelength of light used to make the image.

Despite the intriguing possibilities posed, by a substance with a negative index of refraction, ‘this property is inaccessible through naturally occurring ( positive index ) materials’.

During the mid 1990s, English theoretical physicist Sir John Pendry proposed his clever ‘sleight of light’ using so-called metamaterials – engineered ‘materials’ whose underlying structure ‘can alter overall responses’ to ‘electrical fields’ and ‘magnetic fields’.

Inspired by the Sir John Pendry proposal, scientists have made progress in scaling metamaterials from microwave to infrared wavelengths while illuminating the nuances of light-speed and direction-of-motion in such engineered structures.

“We’ve shown a ‘completely new way to control and manipulate light’, ‘using a silicon photonic crystal’ as a ‘real metamaterial’ – and it works,” said Stefano Cabrini, Facility Director of the Nanofabrication Facility in the Molecular Foundry, a U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) User Facility located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL ) providing support to nanoscience researchers around the world.

“Our findings will open-up an easier way to make structures and use them effectively as a ‘super-lens’.”

Through the Molecular Foundry user program, Cabrini and post-doctoral researcher Allan Chang collaborated with Vito Mocella, a theoretical scientist at the Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems ( CNR ) in Naples, Italy to fabricate a 2 X 2 millimeter device consisting of alternating layers of air and a silicon based photonic crystal containing air holes.

Using high precision nanofabrication processes, the team designed the spacing and thicknesses of each layer to behave like the metamaterial Sir John Pendry had envisioned.

This device was then used to focus a beam of near-infrared ( I-R ) light, essentially ‘annihilating’ 2 millimeters of ‘space’.

“Now that we have a prototype to demonstrate the concept, our next step will be to find the geometry and material that will work for visible light,” said Cabrini.

Along with possibilities in imaging, the researchers’ findings could also be used to develop hybrid negative-index and positive-index materials, Cabrini added, which may lead to novel ‘devices’ and ‘systems’ unachievable through either material alone.

“Self-collimation of light over millimeter-scale distance in a quasi zero average index metamaterial,” by Vito Mocella, Stefano Cabrini, Allan S.P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, Deirdre Olynick, Bruce Harteneck and Scott Dhuey, appears in Physical Review Letters available in Physical Review Letters online.

Portions of this work were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC0205CH11231.

The Molecular Foundry is one ( 1 ) of five ( 5 ) U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) Nanoscale Science Research Centers ( NSRC ) that are premier national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale. Together, the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) Nanoscale Science Research Centers ( NSRC ) comprise a suite of complementary facilities providing researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate, process, characterize and model nanoscale materials, which constitutes the ‘largest infrastructure investment’ of the National Nanotechnology Initiative ( NNI ).

U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) Nanoscale Science Research Centers ( NSRC ) are located at these six ( 6 ) locations:

- Argonne National Laboratory ( ANL ); – Brookhaven National Laboratory ( BNL ); – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL ); – Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL ); – Sandia National Laboratory ( SNL ); and, – Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ).

For more information about the DOE NSRCs, please visit http://nano.energy.gov.

Berkeley Lab is a U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) National Laboratory located in Berkeley, California conducting ‘unclassified scientific research’ managed by the University of California.

References

http://www.lbl.gov http://foundry.lbl.gov http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/04/21/optical-antimatter

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If the public could keep its eye open for one second, it would see what is coming at them before it hits them with a surprise that only government knows anything about, but governments have spoken mysteriously to citizens for a very long time, but perhaps a mere fact ’known today’ may eventually come as no surprise to many whom would have otherwise been kept in the dark while only a few know far more about what awaits the masses.

Perhaps, people may begin asking more questions of their country’s agencies spending so much money so quickly for apparently some ‘mysterious emergency purpose’, and if not for some ‘mysterious emergency purpose’, why is so much money being spent on science and space projects while the global public is told about serious government budget cutbacks causing so many people to suffer? If there is no ’emergency’, then people should know ‘why they are suffering financially more’ – just for the sake of ‘growing science experiment budgets’? Might be a good idea for everyone to begin keeping their eyes open a little more often and trained on something more than light-hearted mainstream media news comedy broadcasts.

If people think they get real serious about ‘what they know’ as told on television news broadcasts, imagine how much more serious they will become when they learn about what they ‘were not told’?

Think about it. How Fast Is Technology Growing? Just beginning to grasp something ‘new’? Now think about something even newer than the Large Hadron Collider ( LHC ) at CERN, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider ( RHIC ) that added its Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC ( STAR ) claiming to ‘reverse time’ by ultra super computers reconstructing sub-atomic particle interactions producing particles – emerging from each collision – that STAR is believed to be able to ‘run time backward’ in a process equated to examining final products coming out-of a factory that scientists and physicists have no idea ’what kinds of machines produced the products’. Basically, they are developing items so fast, they do not know how they were formed, much less what the capabilities are. Fact is, ’they could easily produce a monster’ and ‘not know what it is until after they are eaten by it’. Scary, really, like kids being given matches to play with.

They are being educated beyond their own intelligence, so much so and to the point by which scientists and physicists ’cannot even grasp what ‘it’ is they’re looking at – much less know what they are trying to manipulate to ‘see what it does next’ – nevertheless they are conducting experiments like children playing with dynamite.

Think this is science fiction? Think they are mad scientists at play? Check the research reference links ( below ). Think antimatter technology has advanced alot since you began reading this report? calculate ‘more’ because the public does not even know half of it.

CERN has been operating since 2002, and the “SuperLens” was worked-on ‘before’ 2002, making ‘both’ today now 10-years old.

Want newer ‘news’?

Superlenses – created from perovskite oxides – are simpler and easier to fabricate than ‘metamaterials’.

Superlenses are ideal for capturing light travelling in the mid-infra-red ( IR ) spectrum range, opening even newer technological highly sensitive imaging devices, and this superlensing effect can be selectively turned ‘on’ and ‘off’, opening yet another technology of ‘highly dense data storage writing’ for ‘far more advanced capability computers’.

Plasmonic whispering gallery microcavities, consisting of a silica interior coated with a thin layer of silver, ‘improves quality by better than an order of magnitude’ of current plasmonic microcavities. and paves the way for ‘plasmonic nanolasers’.

Expand your knowledge, begin researching the six ( 6 ) reference links ( below ) so that the next time you watch the ‘news’ you’ll begin to realize just how much you’re ‘not being told’ about what is ‘actually far more important’ – far more than you’re used to imagining.

 

Submitted for review and commentary by,

 

Concept Activity Research Vault E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

References

http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/
http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/STAR.asp
http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=1075&template=Today
http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2011/03/29/perovskite-based-superlens-for-the-infrared/
http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2009/01/22/plasmonic-whispering-gallery/
http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1018060

 

Earth Event Alerts

Earth Event Alerts

[ IMAGE ( above ): IBM Stratus and Cirrus supercomputers analyze Global Environmental Intelligence ( click to enlarge ) ]

Earth Event Alerts

by, Kentron Intellect Research Vault [ E-MAIL: KentronIntellectResearchVault@Gmail.Com ]

August 17, 2012 19:00:42 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: March 23, 2011 )

MARYLAND, Fort George G. Meade – August 17, 2012 – IBM Stratus and IBM Cirrus supercomputers as well as CRAY XK6m and CRAY XT5 ( Jaguar ) massive parallel supercomputers and vector supercomputers are securely controlled via the U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) for analyzing Global Environmental Intelligence ( GEI ) data extracted from ground-based ( terrestrial ) monitoring stations and space-based ( extraterrestrial ) spaceborne platforms studying Earth Event ( Space Weather ) effects via High-Performance Computing ( HPC ) as well as, for:

- Weather Forecasting ( including: Space Weather ); – U.S. Government Classified Projects; – Scientific Research; – Design Engineering; and, – Other Research.

[ IMAGE ( above ): CRAY XK6m supercomputers analyze Global Environmental Intelligence ( click to enlarge ) ]

CRAY INC. largest customers are U.S. government agencies, e.g. the U.S. Department of Defense ( DoD ) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) and the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ) Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL ), which accounts for about 3/4 of revenue for CRAY INC. – as well as other supercomputers used worldwide by academic institutions ( universities ) and industrial companies ( private-sector firms ).

CRAY INC. additionally provides maintenance, support services and sells data storage products from partners ( e.g. BlueArc, LSI and Quantum ).

Supercomputer competitors, of CRAY INC., are:

- IBM; – HEWLETT-PACKARD; and, – DELL.

On May 24, 2011 CRAY INC. announced its new CRAY XK6 supercomputer, a hybrid supercomputing system combining its Gemini InterConnect, AMD Opteron™ 6200 Series processors ( code-named: InterLagos ) and NVIDIA Tesla 20 Series GPUs into a tightly integrated upgradeable supercomputing system capable of more than 50 petaflops ( i.e. ‘quadrillions of computing operations’ per ‘second’ ), a multi-purpose supercomputer designed for the next-generation of many-core High Performance Computing ( HPC ) applications.

The SWISS NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE ( CSCS ) – located in Manno, Switzerland – is the CRAY INC. first ( 1st ) customer for the new CRAY XK6 system. CSCS ( Manno, Switzerland ) promotes and develops technical and scientific services in the field of High-Performance Computing ( HPC ) for the Swiss research community, and is upgrading its CRAY XE6m system ( nick-named: Piz Palu ) into a multiple cabinet new CRAY XK6 supercomputer. The SWISS NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE ( CSCS ) supports scientists working, in:

- Weather Forecasting; – Physics; – Climatology; – Geology; – Astronomy; – Mathematics; – Computer Sciences; – Material Sciences; – Chemistry; – Biology; – Genetics; and, – Experimental Medicine.

Data additionally analyzed by these supercomputers, include:

- Ultra-Deep Sea Volcanoes located in continental plate fracture zones several miles beneath ocean basin areas ( e.g. Asia-Pacific Rim also known as the “Pacific Ring of Fire” where a circum-Pacific seismic belt of earthquakes frequently impact areas far across the Pacific Ocean in the Americas ).

Global geoscience realizes Earth ‘ground movement shaking’ earthquakes hide alot, of what people are actually walking on-top-of, large geographic land mass areas known as ‘continental shelves’ or “continental plates” that move ( tectonics ) because of superheated pressurized extrasuperconducting magnetic energy properties released from within molten magma material violently exploding beneath the surface of the Earth down in ultra-deep seas.

[ IMAGE ( above ): Global Tectonic Plate Boundaries & Major Volcano HotSpots ( click to enlarge ) ]

Significant volcanoes are positioned like dots along this global 25,000-mile circular region known as the “Pacific Ring of Fire” extending from south of Australia up the ‘entire eastcoast’ of Japan, China and the Kamchatka Pennisula of Russia to across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and then south down the ‘entire westcoast’ of North America and Latin America.

[ IMAGE ( above ): Ultra-Deep Sea Pacific Ocean Basin ( click to enlarge ) ]

March 11, 2011 Tohoku-chiho Taiheiyo-oki Japan 9.0 earthquake held several secrets, including U.S. government contractors simultaneously monitoring a significant ”moment of magnitude” ( Mw ) Earth Event occurring parallel to the eastcoast of Japan beneath the Western Pacific Ocean where an entire suboceanic mountain range was being split in-half ( south to north ) 310-miles long and split open 100-feet wide ( east to west ), which the public was unaware of nor were they told details about.

Interestingly, the March 11, 2011 Japan island earthquakes have not yet stopped, as the swarm of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 Richter scale earthquakes continue as a direct and proximate cause of erupting ‘suboceanic volcanoes‘ moving these large “plates” beginning to force yet others to slam into one another thousands of miles away.

Japan’s Western Pacific Ocean ‘eastcoast’ has a ’continental plate’ slamming point meeting the ’westcoast’ of North America near the Cascade mountain range ‘plate’ reacting in one ( 1 ) of two ( 2 ) ways, i.e. ’seaward’ ( plate thrusting toward Japan ) or ‘landward’ ( plate thrusting toward the Pacific Northwest ) of the United States and/or Canada.

What The Public Never Knew

Government leadership, globally, is acutely familiar with these aforementioned types of major Earth Events, including ‘monstrous plate tectonic pushing matches’, which usually collapse one or more ‘national infrastructures’ and typically spells ‘death’ and ‘serious injuries’ for populations in developed areas.

Extremely familiar with mass public panic resulting from Earth Event catastrophes, government ‘contingency actions’ pre-approved by ‘governing bodies’ and/or ‘national leadership’ Executive Order Directives, which although not advertised is a matter of public record, ‘immediately calls’ upon ‘all military forces’ to carry-out “risk reduction” ( ‘minimization of further damages and dangers’ ) through what is referred to as “mitigation” ( ‘disaster management’ ) within “National Disaster Preparedness Planning” ( ‘national contingency measures’ ) details citizens are unaware-of. Government decision-makers know a “national emergency can bring temporary suspension of Constitutional Rights and a loss of freedoms – a volatile subject few care to discuss because ’any significant natural disaster’ will result in government infringment on many civil liberties most populations are accustomed to enjoying.

Before 1-minute and 40-seconds had passed into the March 11, 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake ( Richter scale: M 9.0 ), key U.S. government decision-makers discussed the major Earth Event unfolding off Japan’s eastcoast Plate-Boundary subduction zone beneath the ultra-deep sea of the Western Pacific Ocean where Japan’s monstrous volcano mountain range had split at least 100-feet wide open and cracked 310-miles long in a northern direction headed straight for the Aleutian Islands of Alaska in the United States.

U.S. Military Contingent Standby “Red Alert” Notification

U.S. Air Force ( USAF ) ‘subordinate organization’ Air and Space Operations ( ASO ) Communications Directorate ( A6 ) ‘provides support’ over ‘daily operations’, ‘contingency actions’ and ‘general’ Command, Control, Communication and Computer Intelligence ( C4I ) for the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency ( USAFWA ) saw its 1st Weather Group ( 1ST WXG ) Directorate ready its USAFWAWXGOWS 25th Operational Weather Squadron ( OWS ) at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base ( Tucson, Arizona ) responsibile for conjuntive communication notification issuance of an Earth Event “Red Alert” immediately issued directly to U.S. Army Western Command ( WESTCOM ) with a “Standby-Ready” clause pausing Western Region ( CONUS ) mobilization of Active, Reserve and National Guard military forces at specific installations based on the Japan Earth Event “moment of magnitude” ( Mw ) Plate-Boundary consequential rebound expected to strike against the North America westcoast Plate-Boundary of the Cascadia Range reactionarily triggering its subduction zone into a Cascadia ‘great earthquake’.

CALTECH Public News Suppression Of Major Earth Event

Officials, attempting to diminish any clear public understanding of the facts only knowing a Richter scale level earthquake ‘magnitude’ ( never knowing or hearing about what a major Earth Event “moment of magnitude” ( Mw ) entailed ), only served-up ‘officially-designed double-speak psycho-babble terms’ unfamiliar to the public as ‘creative attention distraction’ announcing the “Japan earthquake experienced,” a:

- “Bilateral Rupture;” and,

- “Slip Distribution.”

The facts are that, the Japan ‘earthquake’ would ‘never have occurred’, ‘unless’:

1ST – “Bilateral Rupture” ( ‘suboceanic subterranean tectonic plate split wide open  ) occurred; followed by,

2ND – “Slip Distribution” ( ‘tectonic plate movement’ ); then finally,

3RD – “Ground Shaking” ( ‘earthquake’ ) response.   Officials failed the public without any notification a major Earth Event “moment of magnitude” ( Mw ) on the “Pacific Ring of Fire” ( circum-Pacific seismic belt ) in the Western Pacific Ocean had a, huge:

1. Continental Plate Break Off;

3. Undersea Plate Mountain Range Crack Wide Open; plus,

2. Mountain Range Split Open 310-Miles Long.

There are some, laying at rest, that might ‘not consider’ the aforementioned three ( 3 ) major Earth Event occurences significant, except those ‘still living’ on Earth.

Asia-Pacific Rim

This western Pacific Ocean huge ‘undersea mountain range’ moved ‘east’, crushing into the smaller portion of its tectonic plate’ toward the continent of Asia, which commenced continous streams of day and night significant earthquakes still registering 5.0 + and 6.0 + according to Richter scale levels of magnitude now and for over 12-days throughout the area surrounding Japan, the point nearest where the tectonic plate meets the continent of Asia within the western Pacific Ocean from where this ‘monstorous undersea mountain range’ suddenly split, sending the ‘eastern half’ – with the ‘tectonic plate’ broken beneath it – slamming into the continent of Asia.

Simultaneously pushed, even greater with more force outward ( note: explosives – like from out-of a cannon or from a force-shaped explosive – project blasts outward from the ‘initial explosive blast’ is blunted by a back-stop ) away-from the Asia continent, was this ‘monstorous undersea mountain range’ split-off ( 310-miles / 500-kilometers long ) ‘western half’ slammed west up against the Americas ‘western tectonic plates’ .

This ‘is’ the ‘major’ “Earth Event” that will have consequential global impact repurcussions, ‘officially minimized’ by ‘focusing public attention’ on a ‘surface’ Earth Event earthquake 9.0 Richter scale magnitude ( once ), while even further diminishing the hundreds of significant earthquakes that are still occuring 12-days after the initial earthquake.

Asia-Pacific Rim “Ring Of Fire”

Many are unaware the “Asia-Pacific Rim” is ( also known as ) the “Ring of Fire” whereunder the ”ultra-deep sea Pacific Ocean’ exists ‘numerous gigantic volatile volcanoes’ positioned in an ‘incredibly large circle’ ( “ring” ) around a ‘huge geographic land mass area’ comprised of ‘tectonic plates’ that ‘connect’ the ‘Eastern Asias’ to the ‘Western Americas’.

Yellowstone National Park Super Volcano

Many people are still wondering ‘why’ the Japan earthquakes have not yet stopped, and why they are being plagued by such a long swarm of siginificant earthquakes still to this very day nearly 60-days later. The multiple color video clips viewed ( below ) provides information on unusual earthquake swarm patterns and reversals while studying the World’s largest supervolcano in Wyoming ( USA ) located at Yellowstone National Park, a global public attraction viewing natural underground volcano steam vents known as geyser eruptions:

[ PHOTO ( above ): Major HotSpot at Yellowstone displays Half Dome cap of granite rock above unerupted volcano magma. ]

Ultra-Deep Sea Volcanoes

When huge undersea volcanoes erupt they dynamically force incredibly large geographic land mass plates to move whereupon simultaneously and consequentially movement is experienced on ‘surface land areas’ people know as ’earthquakes’ with their ’aftermath measurements’ provided in “Richter scale level” measurements that most do not understand. These Richter scale measurements are only ‘officially provided estimates’, as ’officials are never presented with totally accurate measurements’ because many of which are ‘not obtained with any great precision for up-to 2-years after the initial earthquake’.

Rarely are ‘precise measurements’ publicly provided, and at anytime during that 2-year interim the public may hear their previously reported earthquake Richter scale level measurement was either “officially upgraded” or “officially downgraded.” Often, this is apparently dependent when one sees ’many other countries contradicting U.S. public news announcements’ about the magnitude of a particularly controversial earthquake. An example of this was seen surrounding the March 12, 2011 earthquake in Japan:

- Japan 1st public announcement: 9.2 Richter scale;

- United States 1st public announcement: 8.9 Richter scale;

- United States 2nd public announcement: 9.0 Richter scale; and,

- United States 3rd public announcement: 9.1 Richter scale.

What will the March 12, 2011 Japan earthquake be officially reported as in 2-years? Who knows?

Never publicly announced, however are measurements of an earthquake ‘force strength pressure accumulation’ transmitted through suboceanic tectonic plates grinding against one another, a major Earth Event ‘geographic pushing process’, having been seen by U.S. NSA supercomputers from global ground and space-based monitoring analysis surrounding the “Asia-Pacific Rim Ring of Fire” – stretching from the ‘Eastern Asias’ to the ‘Western Americas’ and beyond.

This ‘domino plate tectonic principle’ results from combined amounts of ‘volcanic magmatic eruptive force strength’ and ‘tectonic plate accumulative pressure build-up’ against ‘adjacent tectonic plates’ causing ‘suboceanic, subterranean and surface land to move’ whereupon ‘how significant such amounts occur determines strength’ of both consequential ‘earthquakes’ and resultant ‘tsunamis’.

Waterway Tsunamis

When most of the public ‘hears about’ a “tsunami”, they ‘think’ ‘high waves’ near “ocean” coastal regions presented with significant floods over residents of cities nearby. Few realize the ‘vast majority of Earth’s population predominantly live all along ocean coastal regions. Few realize one ( 1 ) ‘gigantic tsunami’ could ‘kill vast populations living near oceans in the wake of popular beaches, a tough trade-off for some while logical others choose ‘living further inland’ – away from large bodies of water like ‘large lakes’ where ‘tide levels are also effected by the gravitational pull of the moon’ that can also can a ‘vast deep lake body’ bring a tsunami dependent on which direction tectonic plates move a ‘force directionalized earthquake’ creating a ‘tsunami’ with significant innundating floods over residents living in cities near those ‘large shoreline’ areas too.

What most of the public does not yet fully realize is that ‘large river bodies of water’, like the Mississippi River that is a ‘north’ to ‘south’ directional river’ could easily see ‘east to ‘west’ directional ‘tectonic plates’ move adjacent states – along the New Madrid Fault subduction zone – with significant ‘earthquakes’ – from tectonic plate movement easily capable of squeezing the side banks of even the Missippi River forcing huge amounts of water hurled out onto both ‘east’ and ‘west’ sides resulting in ‘seriously significant inland flooding’ over residents living in ‘low lying’ states of the Central Plains of the United States.

Japan “Pacific Ring Of Fire” Earthquakes To Americas Cascadia Fault Zone

Japan accounts, of a co-relative tsunami, suggest the Cascadia Fault rupture occurred from one ( 1 ) single earthquake triggering a 9-Mw Earth Event on January 26, 1700 where geological evidence obtained from a large number of coastal northern California ( USA ) up to southern Vancouver Island ( Canada ), plus historical records from Japan show the 1,100 kilometer length of the Cascadia Fault subduction zone ruptured ( split cauding that earthquake ) major Earth Event at that time. While the sizes of earlier Cascadia Fault earthquakes are unknown, some “ruptured adjacent segments” ( ‘adjacent tectonic plates’ ) within the Cascadia Fault subduction zone were created over periods of time – ranging from as little as ‘hours’ to ‘years’ – that has historically happened in Japan.

Over the past 20-years, scientific progress in understanding Cascadia Fault subduction zone behavior has been made, however only 15-years ago scientists were still debating whether ‘great earthquakes’ occured at ‘fault subduction zones’. Today, however most scientists realize ‘great earthquakes’ actually ‘do occur in fault subduction zone regions’.

Now, scientific discussions focus on subjects, of:

- Earth crust ‘structural changes’ when a “Plate Boundary” ruptures ( splits ) – Related tsunamis; – Seismogenic zone ( tectonic plate ‘locations’ and ‘width sizes’ ).

Japan America Earthquakes And Tsunamis Exchange

Great Cascadia earthquakes generate tsunamis, which most recently was at-least a ’32-foot high tidal wave’ onto the Pacific Ocean westcoast of Washington, Oregon, and California ( northern portion of state ), and that Cascadia earthquake tsunami sent a consequential 16-foot high todal wave onto Japan.

These Cascadia Fault subduction zone earthquake tsunamis threaten coastal communities all around the Pacific Ocean “Ring of Fire” but have their greatest impact on the United States westcoast and Canada being struck within ’15-minutes’ to ’40-minutes’ shortly ‘after’ a Cascadia Fault subduction zone earthquake occurs.

Deposits, from past Cascadia Fault earthquake tsunamis, have been identified at ‘numerous coastal sites’ in California, Oregon, Washington, and even as far ‘north’ as British Columbia ( Canada ) where distribution of these deposits – based on sophisticated computer software simulations for tsunamis – indicate many coastal communities in California, Oregon, Washington, and even as far ‘north’ as British Columbia ( Canada ) are well within flooding inundation zones of past Cascadia Fault earthquake tsunamis.

California, Oregon, Washington, and even as far ‘north’ as British Columbia ( Canada ) westcoast communities are indeed threatened by future tsunamis from Cascadia great earthquake event ‘tsunami arrival times’ are dependent on measuring the distance from the ‘point of rupture’ ( tectonic plate split, causing earthquake ) – within the Cascadia Fault subduction zone – to the westcoast “landward” side.

Cascadia Earthquake Stricken Damage Zone Data

Strong ground shaking from a “moment of magnitude” ( Mw ) “9″ Plate-Boundary earthquake will last 3-minutes or ‘more’, dominated by ‘long-periods of further earthquakes’ where ‘ground shaking movement damage’ will occur as far inland as the cities of Portland, Oregon; Seattle, Washington; and Vancouver, British Columbia ( Canada ).

Tsunami Optional Wave Patterns “Following Sea”

Large cities within 62-miles to 93-miles of the nearest point of the Cascadia Plate-Boundary zone inferred rupture, will not only experience ‘significant ground shaking’ but also experience ‘extreme duration ground shaking’ lasting far longer, in-addition to far more powerful tsunamis carrying far more seawater because of their consequential “lengthened  wave periods” ( ‘lengthier distances’ between ‘wave crests’ or ‘wave curls’ ) bringing inland akin to what fisherman describe as a deadly “following sea” ( swallowing everything within an ‘even more-so powerful waterpath’ ), the result of which inland causes ‘far more significant damage’ on many ‘tall buildings’ and ‘lengthy structures’ where ‘earthquake magnitude strength’ will be felt ‘strongest’ – all along the United States of America Pacific Ocean westcoast regional areas – experiencing ‘far more significant damage’.Data Assessments Of Reoccuring Cascadia Earthquakes

cascadia ‘great earthquakes’ “mean recurrence interval” ( ‘time period occuring between one earthquake with the next earthquake ) – specific ‘at the point’ of the Cascadia Plate-Boundary – time is between 500-years up-to 600-years, however Cascadia Fault earthquakes in the past have occurred well within the 300-year interval of even less time since the Cascadia ‘great earthquake’ of the 1700s. Time intervals, however between ‘successive great earthquakes’ only a few centuries up-to 1,000 years has little ‘well-measured data’ as to ‘reoccurance interval’ because the numbers of recorded Cascadia earthquakes have rarely measured over ‘five’ ( 5 ). Data additionally indicates Cascadia earthquake intermittancy with irregular intervals when they did occur, plus data lacks ‘random distribution’ ( ‘tectonic plate shift’ or ‘earth movement’ ) or ‘cluster’ of these Cascadia earthquakes over a lengthier period of time so ‘more accurate assessments are unavailable’ for knowning anything more about them. Hence, because Cascadia earthquake ‘recurrence pattern’ is so ‘poorly known’, knowing probabilities of the next Cascadia earthquake occurrence is unfortunately unclear with extremely sparse ‘interval information’ details.

Cascadia Plate-Boundary “Locked” And “Not Locked”

Cascadia Plate-Boundary zone is ‘currently locked’ off the U.S. westcoast shoreline where it has accumulating plate tectonic pressure build-up – from other tectonic plates crashing into it for over 300-years.

The Cascadia Fault subduction zone, at its widest point, is located northwest just off the coast of the State of Washington where the maximum area of seismogenic rupture is approximately 1,100 kilometers long and 50 kilometers up-to 150 kilometers wide. Cascadia Plate-Boundary seismogenic portion location and size data is key-critical for determining earthquake magnitude, tsunami size, and the strength of ground shaking.

Cascadia Plate-Boundary “landward limit” – of only its “locked” portion – where ‘no tectonic plate shift has yet to occur’ is located between the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and North America tectonic plate were it came to be “locked” between Cascadia earthquakes, however this “ocked” notion has only been delineated from ‘geodetic measurements’ of ‘surface land deformation’ observations. Unfortunately, its “seaward limit” has ‘very few constraints’ up-to ‘no constraints’ for travelling – on its so-called “locked zone” portion – that could certainly move at any time.

Cascadia Plate Continues Sliding

Cascadia transition zone, separating its “locked zone” from its “continuous sliding zone” headed east into the continent of North America, is constrained ( held-back ) poorly so, Cascadia rupture may extend an unknown distance – from its now “locked zone” to its “continously sliding transition zone.”

On some Earth crust faults, near coastal regions, earthquakes may also experience ‘additional Plate-Boundary earthquakes’, ‘increased tsunami tidal wave size’ plus ‘intensification of local area ground shaking’.

Earth Event Mitigation Forces Global Money Flow

Primary ‘government purpose’ to ‘establishing international’ “risk reduction” is solely to ‘minimize global costs from damages’ associated with major magnitude Earth Events similar-to but even-greater than the what happend on March 11, 2011 all over Japan.

Historical earthquake damages assist in predictive projections of damage loss studies suggesting disastrous future losses will occur in the Pacific Northwest from a Cascadia Fault subduction ‘great earthquake’. National ‘loss mitigation efforts’ – studying ‘other seismically active regions’ plus ‘national cost-benefit studies’ indicate that ‘earthquake damage loss mitigation’ may effectively ‘reduce losses’ and ‘assist recovery’ efforts in the future. Accurate data acquired, geological and geophysical research and immediate ‘technological information transfer’ to ‘national key decision-makers’ was to reduce Pacific Northwest Cascadia Fault subduction zone additional risks to those of the Western North America coastal region.

Damage, injuries, and loss of life from the next great earthquake from the Cascadia Fault subduction zone will indeed be ‘great’, ‘widespread’ and ‘significantly ‘impact national economies’ ( Canada and United States ) for years to decades in the future, which has seen a global concerted increase, in:

- International Cooperative Research; – International Information Exchanges; – International Disaster Prepardeness; – International Damage Loss Mitigation Planning; – International Technology Applications; and, – More.

Tectonics Observatory

CALTECH Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis ( ARIA ) Project collaborative members of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ), University of California Institute of Technology ( Pasadena ) Tectonics Observatory ARIA Project members, CALTECH scientists, Shengji Wei and Anthony Sladen ( of GEOAZUR ) modelled the Japan Tohoku earthquake fault zone sub-surface ( below surface ) ‘tectonic plate movement’, dervived from:

- TeleSeismic Body Waves ( long-distance observations ); and,

- Global Positioning Satellites ( GPS ) ( near-source observations ).

A 3D image of the fault moving, can be viewed in Google Earth ( internet website webpage link to that KML file is found in the “References” at the bottom of this report ) projects that fault rupture in three dimensional images, which can be viewed from any point of reference, with ‘that analysis’ depicting the rupture ( ground splitting open 100-feet ) resulting in the earthquake ( itself ) ‘triggered from 15-miles ( 24-kilometers ) beneath the ultra-deep sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, with the ‘entire island of Japan being moved east’ by 16-feet ( 5 meters ) from its ‘before earthquake location’.

[ IMAGE ( above ): NASA JPL Project ARIA Tectonic Plate Seismic Wave Direction Map ( click image to enlarge and read ) ]

National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ) at the University of California ( Pasadena ) Institute of Technology ( also known as ) CALTECH Project Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis ( ARIA ) used GEONET RINEX data with JPL GIPSY-OASIS software to obtain kinematic “precise point positioning solutions” from a bias fixing method of a ‘single station’ matched-up to JPL orbit and clock products to produce their seismic displacement projection map details that have an inherent ’95% error-rating’ that is even an ‘estimate’, which ‘proves’ these U.S. government organization claims that ‘all they supposedly know’ ( after spending billions of dollars ) are what they are ‘only willing to publicly provide may be ‘only 5% accurate’. So much for what these U.S. government organizations ‘publicly announce’ as their “precise point positioning solutions.”

Pay Any Price?

More ‘double-speak’ and ‘psycho-babble’ serves to ‘only distract the public away from the ‘truth’ as to ‘precisely what’ U.S. taxpayer dollars are ‘actually producing’, and ‘now knowing this’ if ‘those same officials’ ever ‘worked for a small business’ they would either be ‘arrested’ for ‘fraud’ or ‘fired’ because of ‘incompetence’, however since ‘none of them’ will ever ‘admit to their own incometence’ their ‘leadership’ needs to see ‘those responsible’ virtually ‘swing from’ the end of an ‘incredibly long U.S. Department of Justice rope’.

Unfortunately, the facts surrounding all this only get worse.

[ IMAGE ( above ): Tectonic Plates ( brown color ) Sinking and Sunk On Earth Core. ]

Earthquake Prediction Falacy

Earthquake prediction will ‘never be an accomplished finite science for people to ever rely upon’, even though huge amounts of money are being wasted on ‘technology’ for ‘detection sensors’ reading “Seismic Waveforms” ( also known as ) “S Waves” that ‘can be detected and stored in computer databases’, because of a significant fact that will never be learned no matter how much money or time may be devoted to trying to solve the unsolvable problem of the Earth’s sub-crustal regions that consist primarily of ‘molten lake regions’ filled with ‘floating tectonic plates’ that are ‘moving while sinking’ that ‘cannot be tested’ for ‘rock density’ or ‘accumulated pressures’ existing ‘far beneath’ the ‘land surface tectonic plates’.

The very best, and all, that technology can ever perform for the public is to record ‘surface tectonic plates grinding aganist one another’ where ‘only that action’ ( alone ) does in-fact emit the generation of upward ‘accoustic wave form patterns’ named as being ‘seismic waves’ or ‘s-waves’ that ‘do occur’ but ‘only when tectonic plates are moving’.

While a ‘public early warning’ might be helpful for curtailing ‘vehicular traffic’ crossing an ‘interstate bridge’ that might collapse or ‘train traffic’ travel being stopped, thousands of people’s lives could be saved but it would fail to serve millions more living in buildings that collapse.

Early Warning Exclusivity

Knowing governments, using publicly unfamiliar terms, have ‘statisticly analyzed’ “international economics” related to “national infrastructure preparedness” ( ‘early warning systems’ ) – both “public” ( i.e. ‘utility companies’ via ‘government’ with ‘industrial leadership’ meetings ) and “private” ( i.e. ‘residents’ via ‘television’, ‘radio’, ‘newspaper’ and ‘internet’ only ‘commercial advertisements’ ) between which two ( 2 ) sees “national disaster mitigation” ‘primary designated provisions’ for “high density population centers” near “coastal or low-lying regions” ( ‘large bodies of ocean, lake and river water’ ) “early warning” but for only one ( 1 ) being “public” ( i.e. ‘utility companies’ via ‘government’ with ‘industrial leadership’ meetings ) “in the interest of national security” limiting ‘national economic burdens’ from any significant Earth Event impact ‘aftermath’.

In short, and without all the governmentese ‘psycho-babble’ and double-speak’, costs continue being spent on ‘high technology’ efforts to ‘perfect’ a “seismic early warning” for the “exclusive use” ( ‘national government control’ ) that “provides” ( ‘control over’ ) “all major utility company distribution points” ( facilities from where ‘electrical power is only generated’ ) able to “interrupt power” ( ‘stop the flow of electricity nationwide’ from ‘distribution stations’ ), thus “saving additional lives” from “disasterous other problems” ( ‘aftermath loss of lives and injuries’ caused by ‘nuclear fallout radiation’, ‘exploding electrical transformers’, and ‘fires associated with overloaded electrical circuits’ ).

Logically, ‘much’ – but ‘not all’ – of the aforementioned ‘makes perfect sense’, except for “John Doe” or “Jane Doe” ‘exemplified anonomously’ ( herein ) as individuals whom if ‘earlier warned’ could have ‘stopped their vehicle ‘before crossing the bridge that collapsed’ or simply ‘stepped out of the way of a huge sign falling on them’ being ‘killed’ or ‘maimed’, however one might additionally consider ‘how many more would ‘otherwise be killed or maimed’ after an ‘ensuing mass public mob panics’ by ‘receiving’ an “early warning.” Tough call for many, but few.

Earth Data Publicly Minimized

Tohoku-oki earthquake ‘seismic wave form data’ showing the Japan eastcoast tectonic plate “bilaterally ruptured” ( split in-half for a distance of over 310-miles ) was obtained from the USArray seismic stations ( United States ) was analyzed and later modelled by Caltech scientists Lingsen Meng and Jean-Paul Ampuero whom created preliminary data animation demonstrating a ‘super major’ Earth Event simultaneously occurring when the ‘major’ earthquake struck Japan.

U.S. National Security Stations Technology Systems Projects

United States Seismic Array ( USArray ) Data Management Plan Earthscope is composed of three ( 3 ) Projects:

1. Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology ( IRIS ), a National Science Foundation ( NSF ) consortium of universities, Data Management Center ( DMC ) is ‘managed’ by the “United States Seismic Array ( USArray )” Project;

2. UNAVCO INC. ‘implemented’ “Plate-Boundary Observatory ( PBO )” Project; and,

3. U.S. Geological Service ( USGS ) ‘operated’ “San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth ( SAFOD )” Project at Stanford University ( California ).

Simultaneous Earth Data Management

USArray component “Earthscope” data management plan is held by USArray IRIS DMC.

USArray consists of four ( 4 ) data generating components:

Permanent Network

Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) BackBone ( BB ) is a joint effort – between IRIS, USArray and USGS – to establish a ‘Permanent Network’ of approximately one-hundred ( 100 ) Earth monitoring ‘receiving stations’ ( alone ) located in the Continental United States ( CONUS ) or lowere 48 states of America, in-addition to ‘other stations’ located in the State of Alaska ( alone ).

Earth Data Multiple Other Monitors

USArray data contribution to the Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) BackBone ( BB ) consists, of:

Nine ( 9 ) new ‘international Earth data accumulation receiving stations’ akin to the Global Seismic Network ( GSN );

Four ( 4 ) “cooperative other stations” from “Southern Methodist University” and “AFTAC”;

Twenty-six ( 26 ) ‘other receiving stations’ from the Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) with ‘upgrade funding’ taken out-of the USArray Project “EarthScope;” plus,

Sixty ( 60 ) additional stations of the Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) BackBone ( BB ) network that ‘currently exist’, ‘will be installed’ or ‘will be upgraded so that ‘data channel stream feeds’ can and ‘will be made seamlessly available’ through IRIS DMC where ‘data can be continuously recorded’ at forty ( 40 ) samples per second and where 1 sample per second can and ‘will be continously transmitted in real-time back into IRIS DMC where quality assurance is held at facilities located in ‘both’ Albuquerque, New Mexico and Golden, Colorado with ‘some’ U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) handling ‘some operational responsiblities’ thereof.

Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory ( ASL ) -

Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory ( ASL ) supports operation and maintenance of seismic networks for the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) portion of the Global Seismographic Network ( GSN ) and Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) Backbone network.

ASL runs the Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) depot facility supporting the Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) networks.

ASL also maintains the PASSCAL Instrument Center ( PIC ) facility at the University of New Mexico Tech ( Socorro, New Mexico ) developing, testing, and evaluating seismology monitoring and recording equipment.

Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory ( ASL ) staff are based in ‘both’ Albuquerque, New Mexico and Golden, Colorado.

Top-Down Bottom-Up Data Building Slows Earthquake Notifications

Seismic waveform ( ‘seismic Wave form frequency’ ) data is received by the Global Seismic Network ( GSN ) and Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) BackBone ( BB ) network by electronic transmissions sent ‘slower than real-time’ by sending only ‘near-time data’ ( e.g. tape and compact disc recordings ) to the National Earthquake Information Center ( NEIC ) ‘station’ of the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) ‘officially heralded’ for so-called “rapid earthquake response,”

Unbelieveably is the fact that in-addition to the aforementioned ‘slow Earth Event data delivery process’, an additional number of ‘data receiving stations’ have absolutely ‘no data streaming telemetry’ transmission capabilities whatsoever so, those station data recordings – on ‘tapes’ and ‘compact discs’ – are delivered by ‘other even more time consuming routes’ before that data can even reach the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ). In short, all the huge amounts of money being spent goes to ‘increasing computer technologies, sensors, satellites, ‘data stream channel networks’ and ‘secure facility building stations’ from the ‘top, down’ instead of building ‘monitoring stations’ and ‘recording stations’ from the ‘bottom, up’ until the entire earthquake monitoring and notification system is finally built properly. As it curreently stands, the ‘apple cart stations continue being built more and more’ while ‘apple tree stations are not receiving the proper technological nutrients’ to ‘delivery apples ( ‘data’ ) and ‘fed into notification markets’ ( ‘public’ ) where all this could do some good.

U.S. National Security Reviews Delay Already Slow Earthquake Notifications

IRIS Data Management Center ( DMC ) – after processing all incoming data streams from reporting stations around the world – then distributes seismic waveform data ‘back to’ both the Global Seismic Network ( GSN ) and Advanced National Seismic System ( ANSS ) BackBone ( BB ) network operations, but only ‘after seismic waveform data has been ‘thoroughly screened’ by what U.S. national security government Project leadership has deemed its ‘need to control all data’ by “limiting requirements” ( ‘red tape’ ) because ‘all data must undergo’ a long ardous ‘secure data clearing process’ before any data can be released’. Amusingly to some, the U.S. government – in its race to create another ‘official acronym’ of ‘double-speak’ – that national security requirement clearing process’ was ever so aptly named:

“Quality Assurance Framework” ( QUACK )

Enough said.

Let the public decide what to do with ‘those irresponsible officials’, afterall ‘only mass public lives’ are ‘swinging in the breeze’ at the very end-of a now-currently endless ‘dissinformation service rope’ being paid for by the tax-paying public.

In the meantime, while we are all ‘waiting for another Earth Event to take place far beyond, what ( besides this report ) might ‘slap the official horse’, spurring it to move quickly?

How about us? What shhould we do? Perhaps, brushing-up on a little basic knowledge might help.

Inner Earth Deeper Structure Deep Focus Earthquakes Rays And Related Anomalies

There is no substitute for knowledge, seeing information technology ( IT ) at the focal point of many new discoveries aided by supercomputing, modelling and analytics, but common sense does pretty good.

The following information, although an incredibily brief overview on such a wide variety of information topics surrounding a great deal of the in’s and out’s surrounding planet Earth, scratches more than just the surface but deep structure and deep focus impacting a multitude of generations from as far back as 700 years before the birth of Christ ( B.C. ).

Clearly referenced “Encyclopaedia Britannica” general public access information is all second-hand observations of records from other worldwide information collection sources, such as:

- Archives ( e.g. governments, institutions, public and private );

- Symposiums ( e.g. white papers );

- Journals ( professional and technical publications );

- Other information collection sources; and,

- Other information publications.

Encyclopaedias, available in a wide variety of styles and formats, are ’portable catalogs containing a large amount of basic information on a wide variety of topics’ available worldwide to billions of people for increasing their knowledge.

Encyclopedia information formats vary, and through ’volume reading’, within:

- Paper ‘books’ with either ’printed ink’ ( sighted ) or ’embossed dots’ ( Braille );

- Plastic ‘tape cartridges’ ( ‘electromagnetic’ media ) or ‘compact discs’ ( ‘optical’ media ) with ‘electronic device display’; or,

- Electron ‘internet’ ( ‘signal computing’ via ‘satellite’ or ‘telecomputing’ via ’landline’ or ‘node’ networking ) with ‘electronic device display’.

After thoroughly reviewing the Encyclopedia Britannica ‘specific compilation’, independent review found reasonable a facsimile of the original reformatted for easier public comprehension ( reproduced further below ).

Suprisingly, after that Encyclopedia Britannica ‘specific compilation’ information was reformatted for clearer reading comprehension, otherwise inner Earth ‘deep-structure’ geophysical studies formed an amazing correlation with additional factual activities within an equally amazing date chronology of man-made nuclear fracturing reformations of Earth geology geophysical – activities documented worldwide more than 1/2 century ago but somehow forgotten; either by chance or secret circumstance.

How could the Encyclopedia Britannica, or for that matter anyone else, missed something on such a grand scale that is now so obvious?

… [ TEMPORARILY EDITED-OUT FOR REVISION PURPOSES ONLY -  ] …

For more details, about the aforementioned, Click: Here!

Or,

To understand how all this relates, ‘begin with a better basic understanding’ by continuing to read the researched information ( below ):

====

Circa: March 21, 2012

Source:  Encyclopaedia Britannica

Earthquakes

Definition, Earthquake: Sudden shaking of Earth ground caused by passage of seismic waves through Earth rocks.

Seismic waves are produced when some form of energy stored in the Earth’s crust is suddenly released, usually when masses of rock straining against one another suddenly fracture and “slip.” Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. Major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s crust. ( see table of major earthquakes further below )

By the early 20th Century ( 1900s ), little was understood about earthquakes until the emergence of seismology, involving scientific study of all aspects of earthquakes, now yielding answers to long-standing questions as to why and how earthquakes occur.

About 50,000 earthquakes, large enough to be noticed without the aid of instruments, occur every year over the entire Earth, and of these approximately one-hundred ( 100 ) are of sufficient size to produce substantial damage if their centers are near human habitation.

Very great earthquakes, occur on average about once a year, however over centuries these earthquakes have been responsible for millions of human life deaths and an incalculable amount of property damage.

Earthquakes A -Z

Earth’s major earthquakes occur primarily in belts coinciding with tectonic plate margins, apparent since early ( 700 B.C. ) experienced earthquake catalogs, and now more readily discernible by modern seismicity maps instrumentally depicting determined earthquake epicentres.

Most important, is the earthquake Circum-Pacific Belt affecting many populated coastal regions around the Pacific Ocean, namely:

- South America;

- North America & Alaska;

- Aleutian Islands;

- Japan;

- New Zealand; and,

- New Guinea.

80% of the energy, estimated presently released in earthquakes, comes from those whose epicentres are in the Circum-Pacific Belt belt.

Seismic activity is by no means uniform throughout the belt, and there are a number of branches at various points. Because at many places the Circum-Pacific Belt is associated with volcanic activity, it has been popularly dubbed the “Pacific Ring of Fire.”

A second ( 2nd ) belt, known as the Alpide Belt, passes through the Mediterranean region eastward through Asia and joining the Circum-Pacific Belt in the East Indies where energy released in earthquakes from the Alpide Belt is about 15%of the world total.

There are also seismic activity ‘striking connected belts’, primarily along oceanic ridges including, those in the:

- Arctic Ocean;

- Atlantic Ocean;

- Indian Ocean ( western ); and along,

- East Africa rift valleys.

This global seismicity distribution is best understood in terms of its plate tectonic setting.

Forces

Earthquakes are caused by sudden releases of energy within a limited region of Earth rocks, and apparent pressure energy can be released, by:

- Elastic strain;

- Gravity;

- Chemical Reactions; and / or,

- Massive rock body motion.

Of all these, release of elastic rock strain is most important because this form of energy is the only kind that can be stored in sufficient quantities within the Earth to produce major ground disturbances.

Earthquakes, associated with this type of energy release, are called: Tectonic Earthquakes.

Tectonics

Tectonic plate earthquakes are explained by the so-called elastic rebound theory, formulated by the American geologist Harry Fielding Reid after the San Andreas Fault ruptured in 1906, generating the great San Francisco earthquake.

According to Reid theory of elastic rebound, a tectonic earthquake occurs when energy strains in rock masses have accumulated ( built-up ) to a point where resulting stresses exceed the strength of the rocks where then sudden fracturing results.

Fractures propagate ( travel ) rapidly ( see speeds further below ) through the rock, usually tending in the same direction and sometimes extending many kilometres along a local zone of weakness.

In 1906, for instance, the San Andreas Fault slipped along a plane 270-miles ( 430 kilometers) long, a line alongwhich ground was displaced horizontally as much as 20-feet ( 6 meters ).

As a fault rupture progresses along or up the fault, rock masses are flung in opposite directions, and thus spring back to a position where there is less strain.

At any one point this movement may take place not at-once but rather in irregular steps where these sudden slowings and restartings give rise to vibrations that propagate as seismic waves.

Such irregular properties of fault rupture are now included in ‘physical modeling” and ‘mathematical modeling’ earthquake sources.

Earthquake Focus ( Foci )

Roughnesses along the fault are referred to as asperities, and places where the rupture slows or stops are said to be fault barriers. Fault rupture starts at the earthquake focus ( foci ), a spot that ( in many cases ) is close to being from 5 kilometers to 15 kilometers ‘under the surface where the rupture propagates ( travels )’ in one ( 1 ) or both directions over the fault plane until stopped ( or slowed ) at a barrier ( boundary ).

Sometimes, instead of being stopped at the barrier, the fault rupture recommences on the far side; at other times the stresses in the rocks break the barrier, and the rupture continues.

Earthquakes have different properties depending on the type of fault slip that causes them.

The usual ‘fault model’ has a “strike” ( i.e., direction, from north, taken by a horizontal line in the fault plane ) and a “dip” ( i.e. angle from the horizontal shown by the steepest slope in the fault ).

Movement parallel to the dip is called dip-slip faulting.

In dip-slip faults, if the hanging-wall block moves downward relative to the footwall block, it is called “normal” faulting; the opposite motion, with the hanging wall moving upward relative to the footwall, produces reverse or thrust faulting. The lower wall ( of an inclined fault ) is the ‘footwall’, and laying over the footwall is the hanging wall.

When rock masses slip past each other ( parallel to the strike area ) movement is known as strike-slip faulting.

Strike-slip faults are right lateral or left lateral, depending on whether the block on the opposite side of the fault from an observer has moved to the right or left.

All known faults are assumed to have been the seat of one or more earthquakes in the past, though tectonic movements along faults are often slow, and most geologically ancient faults are now a-seismic ( i.e., they no longer cause earthquakes ).

Actual faulting, associated with an earthquake, may be complex and often unclear whether in one ( 1 ) particular earthquake, where total energy, is being issued from a single ( 1 ) fault plane.

Observed geologic faults sometimes show relative displacements on the order of hundreds of kilometres over geologic time, whereas the sudden slip offsets that produce seismic waves may range from only several centimetres to tens of metres.

During the 1976 Tangshan earthquake ( for example ), a surface strike-slip of about 1 meter was observed along the causative fault east of Beijing, China, and later ( as another example ) during the 1999 Taiwan earthquake the Chelung-pu fault slipped vertically up to 8 meters.

Volcanism & Earthquake Movement

A separate type of earthquake is associated with volcano activity known as a volcanic earthquake.

Although likely, even in such cases, disturbance is officially believed resultant from sudden slip of rock masses adjacent a volcano being consequential release of elastic rock strain energy, however stored energy may be partially of hydrodynamic origin due heat provided by magma flowing movements ( tidal ) throughout underground reservoirs beneath volcanoes or releasing under pressure gas, but then there certainly is a clear corresponding distinction between geographic distribution of volcanoes and major earthquakes particularly within the Circum-Pacific Belt traversing ocean ridges.

Volcano vents, however, are generally several hundred kilometres from epicentres of most ‘major shallow earthquakes’, and it is believed ’many earthquake sources’ occur ‘nowhere near active volcanoes’.

Even in cases where earthquake focus occurs where structures are marked ’directly below volcanic vents’, officially there is probably no immediate causal connection between the two ( 2 ) activities where likely both may be resultant on same tectonic processes.

Earth Fracturing

Artificially Created Inductions

Earthquakes are sometimes caused by human activities, including:

- Nuclear Explosion ( large megaton yield ) detonations underground;

- Oil & Gas wells ( deep Earth fluid injections )

- Mining ( deep Earth excavations );

- Reservoirs ( deep Earth voids filled with incredibly heavy large bodies of water ).

In the case of deep mining, the removal of rock produces changes in the strain around the tunnels.

Slip on adjacent, preexisting faults or outward shattering of rock into where new cavities may occur.

In fluid injection, the slip is thought to be induced by premature release of elastic rock strain, as in the case of tectonic earthquakes after fault surfaces are lubricated by the liquid.

Large underground nuclear explosions have been known to produce slip on already strained faults in the vicinity of test devices.

Reservoir Induction

Of the various earthquake causing activities cited above, the filling of large reservoirs ( see China ) being most prominent.

More than 20 significant cases have been documented in which local seismicity has increased following the impounding of water behind high dams. Often, causality cannot be substantiated, because no data exists to allow comparison of earthquake occurrence before and after the reservoir was filled.

Reservoir-induction effects are most marked for reservoirs exceeding 100 metres ( 330 feet ) in depth and 1 cubic km ( 0.24 cubic mile ) in volume. Three ( 3 ) sites where such connections have very probably occurred, are the:

- Hoover Dam in the United States;

- Aswan High Dam in Egypt; and.

- Kariba Dam on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia in Africa.

The most generally accepted explanation for earthquake occurrence in such cases assumes that rocks near the reservoir are already strained from regional tectonic forces to a point where nearby faults are almost ready to slip. Water in the reservoir adds a pressure perturbation that triggers the fault rupture. The pressure effect is perhaps enhanced by the fact that the rocks along the fault have lower strength because of increased water-pore pressure. These factors notwithstanding, the filling of most large reservoirs has not produced earthquakes large enough to be a hazard.

Specific seismic source mechanisms associated with reservoir induction have been established in a few cases. For the main shock at the Koyna Dam and Reservoir in India ( 1967 ), the evidence favours strike-slip faulting motion. At both the Kremasta Dam in Greece ( 1965 ) and the Kariba Dam in Zimbabwe-Zambia ( 1961 ), the generating mechanism was dip-slip on normal faults.

By contrast, thrust mechanisms have been determined for sources of earthquakes at the lake behind Nurek Dam in Tajikistan. More than 1,800 earthquakes occurred during the first 9-years after water was impounded in this 317 meter deep reservoir in 1972, a rate amounting to four ( 4 ) times the average number of shocks in the region prior to filling.

Nuclear Explosion Measurement Seismology Instruments

By 1958 representatives from several countries, including the United States and the Russia Soviet Union government, met to discuss the technical basis for a nuclear test-ban treaty where amongst matters considered was feasibility of developing effective means to detect underground nuclear explosions and to distinguish them seismically from earthquakes.

After that conference, much special research was directed to seismology, leading to major advances in seismic signal detection and analysis.

Recent seismological work on treaty verification has involved using high-resolution seismographs in a worldwide network, estimating the yield of explosions, studying wave attenuation in the Earth, determining wave amplitude and frequency spectra discriminants, and applying seismic arrays. The findings of such research have shown that underground nuclear explosions, compared with natural earthquakes, usually generate seismic waves through the body of the Earth that are of much larger amplitude than the surface waves. This telltale difference along with other types of seismic evidence suggest that an international monitoring network of two-hundred and seventy ( 270 ) seismographic stations could detect and locate all seismic events over the globe of magnitude 4.0 and above ( corresponding to an explosive yield of about 100 tons of TNT ).

Earthquake Effects

Earthquakes have varied effects, including changes in geologic features, damage to man-made structures, and impact on human and animal life. Most of these effects occur on solid ground, but, since most earthquake foci are actually located under the ocean bottom, severe effects are often observed along the margins of oceans.

Surface Phenomena

Earthquakes often cause dramatic geomorphological changes, including ground movements – either vertical or horizontal – along geologic fault traces; rising, dropping, and tilting of the ground surface; changes in the flow of groundwater; liquefaction of sandy ground; landslides; and mudflows. The investigation of topographic changes is aided by geodetic measurements, which are made systematically in a number of countries seriously affected by earthquakes.

Earthquakes can do significant damage to buildings, bridges, pipelines, railways, embankments, and other structures. The type and extent of damage inflicted are related to the strength of the ground motions and to the behaviour of the foundation soils. In the most intensely damaged region, called the meizoseismal area, the effects of a severe earthquake are usually complicated and depend on the topography and the nature of the surface materials. They are often more severe on soft alluvium and unconsolidated sediments than on hard rock. At distances of more than 100 km (60 miles) from the source, the main damage is caused by seismic waves traveling along the surface. In mines there is frequently little damage below depths of a few hundred metres even though the ground surface immediately above is considerably affected.

Earthquakes are frequently associated with reports of distinctive sounds and lights. The sounds are generally low-pitched and have been likened to the noise of an underground train passing through a station. The occurrence of such sounds is consistent with the passage of high-frequency seismic waves through the ground. Occasionally, luminous flashes, streamers, and bright balls have been reported in the night sky during earthquakes. These lights have been attributed to electric induction in the air along the earthquake source.

Tsunamis

Following certain earthquakes, very long-wavelength water waves in oceans or seas sweep inshore. More properly called seismic sea waves or tsunamis ( tsunami is a Japanese word for “harbour wave” ), they are commonly referred to as tidal waves, although the attractions of the Moon and Sun play no role in their formation. They sometimes come ashore to great heights—tens of metres above mean tide level—and may be extremely destructive.

The usual immediate cause of a tsunami is sudden displacement in a seabed sufficient to cause the sudden raising or lowering of a large body of water. This deformation may be the fault source of an earthquake, or it may be a submarine landslide arising from an earthquake.

Large volcanic eruptions along shorelines, such as those of Thera (c. 1580 bc) and Krakatoa (ad 1883), have also produced notable tsunamis. The most destructive tsunami ever recorded occurred on December 26, 2004, after an earthquake displaced the seabed off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. More than 200,000 people were killed by a series of waves that flooded coasts from Indonesia to Sri Lanka and even washed ashore on the Horn of Africa.

Following the initial disturbance to the sea surface, water waves spread in all directions. Their speed of travel in deep water is given by the formula (√gh), where h is the sea depth and g is the acceleration of gravity.

This speed may be considerable—100 metres per second ( 225 miles per hour ) when h is 1,000 metres ( 3,300 feet ). However, the amplitude ( i.e., the height of disturbance ) at the water surface does not exceed a few metres in deep water, and the principal wavelength may be on the order of hundreds of kilometres; correspondingly, the principal wave period—that is, the time interval between arrival of successive crests—may be on the order of tens of minutes. Because of these features, tsunami waves are not noticed by ships far out at sea.

When tsunamis approach shallow water, however, the wave amplitude increases. The waves may occasionally reach a height of 20 to 30 metres above mean sea level in U- and V-shaped harbours and inlets. They characteristically do a great deal of damage in low-lying ground around such inlets. Frequently, the wave front in the inlet is nearly vertical, as in a tidal bore, and the speed of onrush may be on the order of 10 metres per second. In some cases there are several great waves separated by intervals of several minutes or more. The first of these waves is often preceded by an extraordinary recession of water from the shore, which may commence several minutes or even half an hour beforehand.

Organizations, notably inJapan,Siberia,Alaska, andHawaii, have been set up to provide tsunami warnings. A key development is the Seismic Sea Wave Warning System, an internationally supported system designed to reduce loss of life in thePacific Ocean. Centred inHonolulu, it issues alerts based on reports of earthquakes from circum-Pacific seismographic stations.

Seiches

Seiches are rhythmic motions of water in nearly landlocked bays or lakes that are sometimes induced by earthquakes and tsunamis. Oscillations of this sort may last for hours or even for 1-day or 2-days.

The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 caused the waters of canals and lakes in regions as far away as Scotland and Sweden to go into observable oscillations. Seiche surges in lakes in Texas, in the southwestern United States, commenced between 30 and 40 minutes after the 1964 Alaska earthquake, produced by seismic surface waves passing through the area.

A related effect is the result of seismic waves from an earthquake passing through the seawater following their refraction through the seafloor. The speed of these waves is about 1.5 km (0.9 mile) per second, the speed of sound in water. If such waves meet a ship with sufficient intensity, they give the impression that the ship has struck a submerged object. This phenomenon is called a seaquake.

Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude Scales

The violence of seismic shaking varies considerably over a single affected area. Because the entire range of observed effects is not capable of simple quantitative definition, the strength of the shaking is commonly estimated by reference to intensity scales that describe the effects in qualitative terms. Intensity scales date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, before seismographs capable of accurate measurement of ground motion were developed. Since that time, the divisions in these scales have been associated with measurable accelerations of the local ground shaking. Intensity depends, however, in a complicated way not only on ground accelerations but also on the periods and other features of seismic waves, the distance of the measuring point from the source, and the local geologic structure. Furthermore, earthquake intensity, or strength, is distinct from earthquake magnitude, which is a measure of the amplitude, or size, of seismic waves as specified by a seismograph reading ( see below Earthquake magnitude )

A number of different intensity scales have been set up during the past century and applied to both current and ancient destructive earthquakes. For many years the most widely used was a 10-point scale devised in 1878 by Michele Stefano de Rossi and Franƈois-Alphonse Forel. The scale now generally employed in North America is the Mercalli scale, as modified by Harry O. Wood and Frank Neumann in 1931, in which intensity is considered to be more suitably graded.

A 12-point abridged form of the modified Mercalli scale is provided below. Modified Mercalli intensity VIII is roughly correlated with peak accelerations of about one-quarter that of gravity ( g = 9.8 metres, or 32.2 feet, per second squared ) and ground velocities of 20 cm (8 inches) per second. Alternative scales have been developed in bothJapan andEurope for local conditions.

The European ( MSK ) scale of 12 grades is similar to the abridged version of the Mercalli.

Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity

  I. Not felt. Marginal and long-period effects of large earthquakes.

  II. Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors, or otherwise favourably placed to sense tremors.

  III. Felt indoors. Hanging objects swing. Vibrations are similar to those caused by the passing of light trucks. Duration can be estimated.

  IV. Vibrations are similar to those caused by the passing of heavy trucks (or a jolt similar to that caused by a heavy ball striking the walls). Standing automobiles rock. Windows, dishes, doors rattle. Glasses clink, crockery clashes. In the upper range of grade IV, wooden walls and frames creak.

  V. Felt outdoors; direction may be estimated. Sleepers awaken. Liquids are disturbed, some spilled. Small objects are displaced or upset. Doors swing, open, close. Pendulum clocks stop, start, change rate.

  VI. Felt by all; many are frightened and run outdoors. Persons walk unsteadily. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves or overturns. Weak plaster and masonry cracks. Small bells ring (church, school). Trees, bushes shake.

  VII. Difficult to stand. Noticed by drivers of automobiles. Hanging objects quivering. Furniture broken. Damage to weak masonry. Weak chimneys broken at roof line. Fall of plaster, loose bricks, stones, tiles, cornices. Waves on ponds; water turbid with mud. Small slides and caving along sand or gravel banks. Large bells ringing. Concrete irrigation ditches damaged.

  VIII. Steering of automobiles affected. Damage to masonry; partial collapse. Some damage to reinforced masonry; none to reinforced masonry designed to resist lateral forces. Fall of stucco and some masonry walls. Twisting, fall of chimneys, factory stacks, monuments, towers, elevated tanks. Frame houses moved on foundations if not bolted down; loose panel walls thrown out. Decayed pilings broken off. Branches broken from trees. Changes in flow or temperature of springs and wells. Cracks in wet ground and on steep slopes.

  IX. General panic. Weak masonry destroyed; ordinary masonry heavily damaged, sometimes with complete collapse; reinforced masonry seriously damaged. Serious damage to reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground. In alluvial areas, sand and mud ejected; earthquake fountains, sand craters.

  X. Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with their foundations. Some well-built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Large landslides. Water thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, and so on. Sand and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and flat land. Railway rails bent slightly.

  XI. Rails bent greatly. Underground pipelines completely out of service.

  XII. Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaced. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into air.

With the use of an intensity scale, it is possible to summarize such data for an earthquake by constructing isoseismal curves, which are lines that connect points of equal intensity. If there were complete symmetry about the vertical through the earthquake’s focus, isoseismals would be circles with the epicentre (the point at the surface of the Earth immediately above where the earthquake originated) as the centre. However, because of the many unsymmetrical geologic factors influencing intensity, the curves are often far from circular. The most probable position of the epicentre is often assumed to be at a point inside the area of highest intensity. In some cases, instrumental data verify this calculation, but not infrequently the true epicentre lies outside the area of greatest intensity.

Earthquake Magnitude

Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the “size” or amplitude of the seismic waves generated by an earthquake source and recorded by seismographs.

Types and nature of these waves are described in Seismic waves ( further below ).

Because the size of earthquakes varies enormously, it is necessary for purposes of comparison to compress the range of wave amplitudes measured on seismograms by means of a mathematical device.

In 1935, American seismologist Charles F. Richter set up a magnitude scale of earthquakes as the logarithm to base 10 of the maximum seismic wave amplitude ( in thousandths of a millimetre ) recorded on a standard seismograph ( the Wood-Anderson torsion pendulum seismograph ) at a distance of 60-miles ( 100 kilometers ) from the earthquake epicentre.

Reduction of amplitudes observed at various distances to the amplitudes expected at the standard distance of 100 kilometers ( 50-miles ) is made on the basis of empirical tables.

Richter magnitudes ML are computed on the assumption the ratio of the maximum wave amplitudes at two ( 2 ) given distances is the same for all earthquakes and is independent of azimuth.

Richter first applied his magnitude scale to shallow-focus earthquakes recorded within 600 km of the epicentre in the southern California region. Later, additional empirical tables were set up, whereby observations made at distant stations and on seismographs other than the standard type could be used. Empirical tables were extended to cover earthquakes of all significant focal depths and to enable independent magnitude estimates to be made from body- and surface-wave observations.

A current form of the Richter scale is shown in the table.

Richter scale of earthquake magnitude

magnitude level

category

effects

earthquakes per year

less than 1.0 to 2.9

micro

generally not felt by people, though recorded on local instruments

more than 100,000

3.0-3.9

minor

felt by many people; no damage

12,000-100,000

4.0-4.9

light

felt by all; minor breakage of objects

2,000-12,000

5.0-5.9

moderate

some damage to weak structures

200-2,000

6.0-6.9

strong

moderate damage in populated areas

20-200

7.0-7.9

major

serious damage over large areas; loss of life

3-20

8.0 and higher

great

severe destruction and loss of life over large areas

fewer than 3

At the present time a number of different magnitude scales are used by scientists and engineers as a measure of the relative size of an earthquake. The P-wave magnitude (Mb), for one, is defined in terms of the amplitude of the P wave recorded on a standard seismograph. Similarly, the surface-wave magnitude (Ms) is defined in terms of the logarithm of the maximum amplitude of ground motion for surface waves with a wave period of 20 seconds.

As defined, an earthquake magnitude scale has no lower or upper limit. Sensitive seismographs can record earthquakes with magnitudes of negative value and have ‘recorded magnitudes up to’ about ‘9.0’ ( 1906 San Francisco earthquake, for example, had a Richter magnitude of 8.25 ).

A scientific weakness is that there is no direct mechanical basis for magnitude as defined above. Rather, it is an empirical parameter analogous to stellar magnitude assessed by astronomers. In modern practice a more soundly based mechanical measure of earthquake size is used—namely, the seismic moment (M0). Such a parameter is related to the angular leverage of the forces that produce the slip on the causative fault. It can be calculated both from recorded seismic waves and from field measurements of the size of the fault rupture. Consequently, seismic moment provides a more uniform scale of earthquake size based on classical mechanics. This measure allows a more scientific magnitude to be used called moment magnitude (Mw). It is proportional to the logarithm of the seismic moment; values do not differ greatly from Ms values for moderate earthquakes. Given the above definitions, the great Alaska earthquake of 1964, with a Richter magnitude (ML) of 8.3, also had the values Ms = 8.4, M0 = 820 × 1027 dyne centimetres, and Mw = 9.2

Earthquake Energy

Energy in an earthquake passing a particular surface site can be calculated directly from the recordings of seismic ground motion, given, for example, as ground velocity. Such recordings indicate an energy rate of 105 watts per square metre (9,300 watts per square foot) near a moderate-size earthquake source. The total power output of a rupturing fault in a shallow earthquake is on the order of 1014 watts, compared with the 105 watts generated in rocket motors.

The surface-wave magnitude Ms has also been connected with the surface energy Es of an earthquake by empirical formulas. These give Es = 6.3 × 1011 and 1.4 × 1025 ergs for earthquakes of Ms = 0 and 8.9, respectively. A unit increase in Ms corresponds to approximately a 32-fold increase in energy. Negative magnitudes Ms correspond to the smallest instrumentally recorded earthquakes, a magnitude of 1.5 to the smallest felt earthquakes, and one of 3.0 to any shock felt at a distance of up to 20 km ( 12 miles ). Earthquakes of magnitude 5.0 cause light damage near the epicentre; those of 6.0 are destructive over a restricted area; and those of 7.5 are at the lower limit of major earthquakes.

The total annual energy released in all earthquakes is about 1025 ergs, corresponding to a rate of work between 10,000,000 million and 100,000,000 million kilowatts. This is approximately one ( 1 ) 1,000th the ‘annual amount of heat escaping from the Earth interior’.

90% of the total seismic energy comes from earthquakes of ‘magnitude 7.0 and higher’ – that is, those whose energy is on the order of 1023 ergs or more.

Frequency

There also are empirical relations for the frequencies of earthquakes of various magnitudes. Suppose N to be the average number of shocks per year for which the magnitude lies in a range about Ms. Then log10 N = abMs fits the data well both globally and for particular regions; for example, for shallow earthquakes worldwide, a = 6.7 and b = 0.9 when Ms > 6.0. The frequency for larger earthquakes therefore increases by a factor of about 10 when the magnitude is diminished by one unit. The increase in frequency with reduction in Ms falls short, however, of matching the decrease in the energy E. Thus, larger earthquakes are overwhelmingly responsible for most of the total seismic energy release. The number of earthquakes per year with Mb > 4.0 reaches 50,000.

Earthquake Occurrences & Plate Tectonic associations

Global seismicity patterns had no strong theoretical explanation until the dynamic model called plate tectonics was developed during the late 1960s. This theory holds that the Earth’s upper shell, or lithosphere, consists of nearly a dozen large, quasi-stable slabs called plates. The thickness of each of these plates is roughly 50-miles ( 80 km ). Plates move horizontally relative to neighbouring plates at a rate of 0.4 to 4 inches ( 1-cm to 10-cm ) per year over a shell of lesser strength called the asthenosphere. At the plate edges where there is contact between adjoining plates, boundary tectonic forces operate on the rocks, causing physical and chemical changes in them. New lithosphere is created at oceanic ridges by the upwelling and cooling of magma from the Earth’s mantle. The horizontally moving plates are believed to be absorbed at the ocean trenches, where a subduction process carries the lithosphere downward into the Earth’s interior. The total amount of lithospheric material destroyed at these subduction zones equals that generated at the ridges. Seismological evidence ( e.g. location of major earthquake belts ) is everywhere in agreement with this tectonic model.

Earthquake Types:

- Shallow Earthquakes;

- Intermediate Earthquakes;

- Deep Focus ( Deep-Foci ) Earthquakes; and

- Deeper Focus ( Deeper-Foci ) Earthquakes.

Earthquake sources, are concentrated along oceanic ridges, corresponding to divergent plate boundaries.

At subduction zones, associated with convergent plate boundaries, deep-focus earthquakes and intermediate focus earthquakes mark locations of the upper part of a dipping lithosphere slab.

Focal ( Foci ) mechanisms indicate stresses aligned with dip of the lithosphere underneath the adjacent continent or island arc.

IntraPlate Seismic Event Anomalies

Some earthquakes associated with oceanic ridges are confined to strike-slip faults, called transform faults offset ridge crests. The majority of earthquakes occurring along such horizontal shear faults are characterized by slip motions.

Also in agreement with plate tectonics theory is high seismicity encountered along edges of plates where they slide past each other. Plate boundaries of this kind, sometimes called fracture zones include, the:

- San Andreas Fault system in California; and,

- North Anatolian fault system in Turkey.

Such plate boundaries are the site of interplate earthquakes of shallow focus.

Low seismicity within plates is consistent with plate tectonic description. Small to large earthquakes do occur in limited regions well within the boundaries of plates, however such ‘intraplate seismic events’ can be explained by tectonic mechanisms other than plate boundary motions and their associated phenomena.

Most parts of the world experience at least occasional shallow earthquakes – those that originate within 60 km ( 40 miles ) of the Earth’s outer surface. In fact, the great ‘majority of earthquake foci ( focus ) are shallow’. It should be noted, however, that the geographic distribution of smaller earthquakes is less completely determined than more severe quakes, partly because the ‘availability of relevant data dependent on distribution of observatories’.

Of the total energy released in earthquakes, 12% comes from intermediate earthquakes—that is, quakes with a focal depth ranging from about 60 to 300 km. About 3 percent of total energy comes from deeper earthquakes. The frequency of occurrence falls off rapidly with increasing focal depth in the intermediate range. Below intermediate depth the distribution is fairly uniform until the greatest focal depths, of about 700 km (430 miles), are approached.

Deeper-Focus Earthquakes

Deeper-focus earthquakes commonly occur in patterns called Benioff zones dipping into the Earth, indicating presence of a subducting slab where dip angles of these slabs average about 45° – with some shallower – and others nearly vertical.

Benioff zones coincide with tectonically active island arcs, such as:

- Aleutian islands;

- Japan islands;

- Vanuatu islands; and

- Tonga.

Island arcs are, normally ( but not always ) associated, with:

Ultra-Deep Sea Ocean Trenches, such as the:

South America ( Andes mountain system ).

Exceptions to this rule, include:

- Romania ( East Europe ) mountain system; and

- Hindu Kush mountain system.

Most Benioff zones,  deep-earthquake foci and intermediate-earthquake foci are usually found within a narrow layer, however recent more precise hypocentral locations – in Japan and elsewhere – indicate two ( 2 ) distinct parallel bands of foci only 12 miles ( 20 kilometers ) apart.

Aftershocks, Swarms and Foreshocks

Major or even moderate earthquake of shallow focus is followed by many lesser-size earthquakes close to the original source region. This is to be expected if the fault rupture producing a major earthquake does not relieve all the accumulated strain energy at once. In fact, this dislocation is liable to cause an increase in the stress and strain at a number of places in the vicinity of the focal region, bringing crustal rocks at certain points close to the stress at which fracture occurs. In some cases an earthquake may be followed by 1,000 or more aftershocks a day.

Sometimes a large earthquake is followed by a similar one along the same fault source within an hour or perhaps a day. An extreme case of this is multiple earthquakes. In most instances, however, the first principal earthquake of a series is much more severe than the aftershocks. In general, the number of aftershocks per day decreases with time.

Aftershock frequency, is ( roughly ):

Inversely proportional to time since occurrence of largest earthquake in series.

Most major earthquakes occur without detectable warning, but some principal earthquakes are preceded by foreshocks.

Japan 2-Years of Hundreds of Thousands Of Earthquakes

In another common pattern, large numbers of small earthquakes may occur in a region for months without a major earthquake.

In the Matsushiro region of Japan, for instance, there occurred ( between August 1965 and August 1967 ) a ‘series of earthquakes’ numbering in the hundreds of thousands – some sufficiently strong ( up to Richter magnitude 5.0 ) causing property damage but no casualties.

Maximum frequency? 6,780 small earthquakes on just April 17, 1966.

Such series of earthquakes are called earthquake swarms.

Earthquakes, associated with volcanic activity often occur in swarms – though swarms also have been observed in many nonvolcanic regions.

Study of Earthquakes

Seismic waves

Principal types of seismic waves

Seismic Waves ( S Waves ), generated by an earthquake source, are commonly classified into three ( 3 ) ‘leading types’.

The first two ( 2 ) leading types, propagate ( travel ) within the body of the Earth, are known as:

P ( Primary ) Seismic Waves; and,

S ( Secondary ) Seismic Waves ( S / S Waves ).

The third ( 3rd ) leading types, propagate ( travel ) along surface of the Earth, are known as:

L ( Love ) Seismic Waves; and,

R ( Rayleigh ) Seismic Waves.

During the 19th Century, existence of these types of seismic waves were mathematically predicted, and modern comparisons show close correspondence between such ‘theoretical calculations‘ and ‘actual measurements’ of seismic waves.

P seismic waves travel as elastic motions at the highest speeds, and are longitudinal waves transmitted by both solid and liquid materials within inner Earth.

P waves ( particles of the medium) vibrate in a manner ‘similar to sound waves’ transmitting media ( alternately compressed and expanded ).

The slower type of body wave, the S wave, travels only through solid material. With S waves, the particle motion is transverse to the direction of travel and involves a shearing of the transmitting rock.

Focus ( Foci )

Because of their greater speed, P waves are the first ( 1st ) to reach any point on the Earth’s surface. The first ( 1st ) P-wave onset ‘starts from the spot where an earthquake originates’. This point, usually at some depth within the Earth, is called the focus (also known as ) hypocentre.

Epicenter

Point ‘at the surface’ ( immediately ‘above the Focus / Foci’ ) is known as the ‘epicenter’.

Love waves and Rayleigh waves, guided by the free surface of the Earth, trail after P and S waves have passed through the body of planet Earth.

Rayleigh waves ( R Waves ) and Love waves ( L Waves ) involve ‘horizontal particle motion’, however ‘only Rayleigh waves exhibit ‘vertical ground displacements’.

Rayleigh waves ( R waves ) and Love ( L waves ) travel ( propagate ) and disperse into long wave trains, when occurring away-from ‘alluvial basin sources’, at substantial distances cause much of the Earth surface ground shaking felt during earthquakes.

Seismic Wave Focus ( Foci ) Properties

At all distances from the focus ( foci ), mechanical properties of rocks, such as incompressibility, rigidity and density play roles, in:

- Speed of ‘wave travel’;

- Duration of ‘wave trains’; and,

- Shape of ‘wave trains’.

Layering of the rocks and the physical properties of surface soil also affect wave characteristics.

In most cases, ‘elastic behaviors occur in earthquakes, however strong shaking ( of surface soils from the incident seismic waves ) sometimes result in ‘nonelastic behavior’, including slumping ( i.e., downward and outward movement of unconsolidated material ) and liquefaction of sandy soil.

Seismic wave that encounters a boundary separating ‘rocks of different elastic properties’ undergo reflection and refraction where a special complication exists because conversion between wave types usually also occur at such a boundary where an incident P or S wave can yield reflected P and S waves and refracted P and S waves.

Between Earth structural layers, boundaries give rise to diffracted and scattered waves, and these additional waves are partially responsible for complications observed in ground motion during earthquakes.

Modern research is concerned with ‘computing, synthetic records of ground motion realistic comparisons with observed actual ground shaking’, using wave theory in complex structures.

Grave Duration Long-Periods, Audible Earthquake Frequencies, and Other Earth Anomalies

Frequency range of seismic waves is widely varied, from being ‘High Frequency’ ( HF ) as an ‘audible range’ ( i.e. greater than > 20 hertz ) to, as Low Frequency ( LF ) as subtle as ‘free oscillations of planet Earth’ – with grave Long-Periods being 54-minutes ( see below Long-Period oscillations of the globe ).

Seismic wave attenuations in rock imposes High-Frequency ( HF ) limits, and in small to moderate earthquakes the dominant frequencies extend in Surface Waves from about 1.0 Hz to 0.1 Hertz.

Seismic wave amplitude range is also great in most earthquakes.

Displacement of ground ranges, from: 10−10 to 10−1 metre ( 4−12 to 4-inches ).

Great Earthquake Speed

Great Earthquake Ground Speed Moves Faster Than 32-Feet Per Second, Squared ( 9.8 Metres Per Second, Squared ) -

In the greatest earthquakes, ground amplitude of predominant P waves may be several centimetres at periods of 2-seconds to 5-seconds, however very close to seismic sources of ‘great earthquakes’, investigators measured ‘large wave amplitudes’ with ‘accelerations of the ground exceeding ( speed of gravity ) 32.2 feet per second squared ( 9.8 meters per second, squared ) at High Frequencies ( HF ) and ground displacements of 1 metre at Low Frequencies ( LF ).

Seismic Wave Measurement

Seismographs and Accelerometers

Seismographs ‘measure ground motion’ in both ‘earthquakes’ and ‘microseisms’ ( small oscillations described below ).

Most of these instruments are of the pendulum type. Early mechanical seismographs had a pendulum of large mass ( up to several tons ) and produced seismograms by scratching a line on smoked paper on a rotating drum.

In later instruments, seismograms ( also known as seismometers ) recorded via ‘rays of light bounced off a mirror’ within a galvanometer using electric current from electromagnetic induction ‘when the pendulum of the seismograph moved’.

Technological developments in electronics have given rise to ‘higher-precision pendulum seismometers’ and ‘sensors of ground motion’.

In these instruments electric voltages produced by motions of the pendulum or the equivalent are passed through electronic circuitry to ‘amplify ground motion digitized for more exactness’ readings.

Seismometer Nomenclature Meanings

Seismographs are divided into three ( 3 ) types of instruments knowingly confused by the public because of their varied names, as:

- Short-Period;

- Intermediate-Period ( also known as Long-Period );

- Long-Period ( also known as Intermediate-Period );

- Ultra-Long-Period ( also known as Broadband or Broad-Band ); or,

- Broadband ( also known as Ultra Long-Period or UltraLong-Period ).

Short-Period instruments are used to record P and S body waves with high magnification of the ground motion. For this purpose, the seismograph response is shaped to peak at a period of about 1-second or less.

Intermediate-period instruments, the type used by the World-Wide Standardized Seismographic Network ( WWSSN ) – described in the section Earthquake observatories – had about a 20-second ( maximum ) response.

Recently, in order to provide as much flexibility as possible for research work, the trend has been toward the operation of ‘very broadband seismographs’ digitizing representation of signals. This is usually accomplished with ‘very long-period pendulums’ and ‘electronic amplifiers’ passing signals in the band between 0.005 Hz and 50 Hertz.

When seismic waves close to their source are to be recorded, special design criteria are needed. Instrument sensitivity must ensure that the largest ground movements can be recorded without exceeding the upper scale limit of the device. For most seismological and engineering purposes the wave frequencies that must be recorded are higher than 1 hertz, and so the pendulum or its equivalent can be small. For this reason accelerometers that measure the rate at which the ground velocity is changing have an advantage for strong-motion recording. Integration is then performed to estimate ground velocity and displacement. The ground accelerations to be registered range up to two times that of gravity. Recording such accelerations can be accomplished mechanically with short torsion suspensions or force-balance mass-spring systems.

Because many strong-motion instruments need to be placed at unattended sites in ordinary buildings for periods of months or years before a strong earthquake occurs, they usually record only when a trigger mechanism is actuated with the onset of ground motion. Solid-state memories are now used, particularly with digital recording instruments, making it possible to preserve the first few seconds before the trigger starts the permanent recording and to store digitized signals on magnetic cassette tape or on a memory chip. In past design absolute timing was not provided on strong-motion records but only accurate relative time marks; the present trend, however, is to provide Universal Time ( the local mean time of the prime meridian ) by means of special radio receivers, small crystal clocks, or GPS ( Global Positioning System ) receivers from satellite clocks.

Prediction of strong ground motion and response of engineered structures in earthquakes depends critically on measurements of the spatial variability of earthquake intensities near the seismic wave source. In an effort to secure such measurements, special arrays of strong-motion seismographs have been installed in areas of high seismicity around the world.

Large-aperture seismic arrays (linear dimensions on the order of about 1/2 mile ( 0.6 mile ) to about 6 miles ( 1 kilometer to 10 kilometers ) of strong-motion accelerometers now used to improve estimations of speed, direction of propagation and types of seismic wave components.

Particularly important for full understanding of seismic wave patterns at the ground surface is measurement of the variation of wave motion with depth where to aid in this effort special digitally recording seismometers have been ‘installed in deep boreholes’.

Ocean-Bottom Measurements

70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water so, ocean-bottom seismometers augment ( add to ) global land-based system of recording stations.

Field tests have established the feasibility of extensive long-term recording by instruments on the seafloor.

Japan has a ‘semi-permanent seismograph’ system of this type placed on the seafloor off the Pacific Ocean eastcoast of centralHonshu,Japan in 1978 by means of a ‘cable’.

Because of mechanical difficulties maintaining ‘permanent ocean-bottom instrumentation’, different systems have been considered.

They ‘all involve placement of instruments on the ocean bottom’, though they employ various mechanisms for data transmission.

Signals may be transmitted to the ocean surface for retransmission by auxiliary apparatus or transmitted via cable to a shore-based station. Another system is designed to release its recording device automatically, allowing it to float to the surface for later recovery.

Ocean bottom seismograph use should yield much-improved global coverage of seismic waves and provide new information on the seismicity of oceanic regions.

Ocean-bottom seismographs will enable investigators to determine the details of the crustal structure of the seafloor and, because of the relative ‘thinness of the oceanic crust‘, should make possible collection of clear seismic information about Earth’s upper mantle.

Ocean bottom seismograph systems are also expected to provide new data, on Earth:

- Continental Shelf Plate Boundaries;

- MicroSeisms ( origins and propagations ); and,

- Ocean to Continent behavior margins.

MicroSeisms Measurements

MicroSeisms ( also known as ) ‘small ground motions’ are commonly recorded by seismographs. Small weak seismic wave motions ( also known as ) MicroSeisms are ‘not generated by earthquakes’ but in some instances can complicate accurate earthquake measurement recording. MicroSeisms are of scientific interest because their form relates to Earth surface structure.

Microseisms ( some ) have ‘local cause’, for example:

Microseisms due to traffic ( or machinery ) or local wind effects, storms and rough surf against an extended steep coastline.

Another class of microseisms exhibits features that are very similar on records traced at earthquake observatories that are widely separated, including approximately simultaneous occurrence of maximum amplitudes and similar wave frequencies. These microseisms may persist for many hours and have more or less regular periods of about five to eight seconds.

The largest amplitudes of such microseisms are on the order of 10−3 cm ( 0.0004 inch ) and ‘occur in coastal regions’. Amplitudes also depend to some extent on local geologic structure.

Some microseisms are produced when ‘large standing water waves are formed far out at sea’. The period of this type of microseism is ‘half’ of the Standing Wave.

Observations of Earthquakes

Earthquake Observatories

During the late 1950s, there were only about seven-hundred ( 700 ) seismographic stations worldwide, equipped with seismographs of various types and frequency responses – few instruments of which were calibrated; actual ground motions could not be measured, and ‘timing errors of several seconds’ were common.

The World-Wide Standardized Seismographic Network ( WWSSN ), became the first modern worldwide standardized system established to remedy that situation.

Each of the WWSSN had six ( 6 ) seismograph stations with three ( 3 ) short-period and three ( 3 ) long-period seismographs with timing and accuracy maintained by quartz crystal clocks, and a calibration pulse placed daily on each record.

By 1967, the WWSSN consisted of about one-hundred twenty ( 120 ) stations throughout sixty ( 60 ) countries, resulting in data to provide the basis for significant advances in research, on:

- Earthquakes ( mechanisms );

- Plate Tectonics ( global ); and,

- Deep-Structure Earth ( interior ).

By the 1980s a further upgrading of permanent seismographic stations began with the installation of digital equipment by a number of organizations.

Global digital seismograph station networks, now in operation, consist of:

- Seismic Research Observatories ( SRO ) within boreholes drilled 330 feet ( 100 metres ) deep in Earth ground; and,

- Modified high-gain long-period earthquake observatories located on Earth ground surfaces.

The Global Digital Seismographic Network in particular has remarkable capability, recording all motions from Earth ocean tides to microscopic ground motions at the level of local ground noise.

At present there are about 128 sites. With this system the long-term seismological goal will have been accomplished to equip global observatories with seismographs that can record every small earthquake anywhere over a broad band of frequencies.

Epicentre Earthquakes Located

Many observatories make provisional estimates of the epicentres of important earthquakes. These estimates provide preliminary information locally about particular earthquakes and serve as first approximations for the calculations subsequently made by large coordinating centres.

If an earthquake’s epicentre is less than 105° away from an earthquake observatory, the epicentre position can often be estimated from the readings of three ( 3 ) seismograms recording perpendicular components of the ground motion.

For a shallow earthquake the epicentral distance is indicated by the interval between the arrival times of P and S waves; the azimuth and angle of wave emergence at the surface indicated by somparing sizes and directions of the first ( 1st ) movements indicated by seismograms and relative sizes of later waves – particularly surface waves.

Anomaly

It should be noted, however, that in certain regions the first ( 1st ) wave movement at a station arrives from a direction differing from the azimuth toward the epicentre. This ‘anomaly is usually explained’ by ‘strong variations in geologic structures’.

When data from more than one observatory are available, an earthquake’s epicentre may be estimated from the times of travel of the P and S waves from source to recorder. In many seismically active regions, networks of seismographs with telemetry transmission and centralized timing and recording are common. Whether analog or digital recording is used, such integrated systems greatly simplify observatory work: multichannel signal displays make identification and timing of phase onsets easier and more reliable. Moreover, online microprocessors can be programmed to pick automatically, with some degree of confidence, the onset of a significant common phase, such as P, by correlation of waveforms from parallel network channels. With the aid of specially designed computer programs, seismologists can then locate distant earthquakes to within about 10 km (6 miles) and the epicentre of a local earthquake to within a few kilometres.

Catalogs of earthquakes felt by humans and of earthquake observations have appeared intermittently for many centuries. The earliest known list of instrumentally recorded earthquakes with computed times of origin and epicentres is for the period 1899 – 1903, afterwhich cataloging of earthquakes became more uniform and complete.

Especially valuable is the service provided by the International Seismological Centre ( ISC ) in Newbury, UK that monthly receives more than 1,000,000 seismic readings from more than 2,000 seismic monitoring stations worldwide and preliminary estimates locations of approximately 1,600 earthquakes from national and regional agencies and observatories.

The ISC publishes a monthly bulletin about once ( 1 ) every 2-years. The bulletin, when published, provides ‘all available information that was’ on each of more than 5,000 earthquakes.

Various national and regional centres control networks of stations and act as intermediaries between individual stations and the international organizations.

Examples of long-standing national centers include, the:

Japan Meteorological Agency; and,

U.S. National Earthquake Information Center ( NEIC ), a subdivision of the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ).

Centers, such as the aforementioned, normally make ‘local earthquake estimates’, of:

- Magnitude;

- Epicentre;

- Time origin; and,

- Focal depth.

Global seismicity data is continually accessible via Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology ( IRIS ) website.

An important research technique infers the character of faulting ( in an earthquake ) from recorded seismograms.

For example, observed distributions ( of the directions of the first onsets in waves arriving at the Earth’s surface ) have been effectively used.

Onsets are called “compressional” or “dilatational,” according to whether the direction is ‘away from’ or ‘toward’ the focus, respectively.

A polarity pattern becomes recognizable when the directions of the P-wave onsets are plotted on a map – there are broad areas in which the first onsets are predominantly compressions, separated from predominantly dilatational areas by nodal curves near which the P-wave amplitudes are abnormally small.

In 1926 the American geophysicist Perry E. Byerly used patterns of P onsets over the entire globe to infer the orientation of the fault plane in a large earthquake. The polarity method yields two P-nodal curves at the Earth’s surface; one curve is in the plane containing the assumed fault, and the other is in the plane ( called the auxiliary plane ) that passes through the focus and is perpendicular to the forces of the plane.

The recent availability of worldwide broad-based digital recording enabled computer programs written estimating the fault mechanism and seismic moment based on complete pattern of seismic wave arrivals.

Given a well-determined pattern at a number of earthquake observatories, it is possible to locate two ( 2 ) planes, one ( 1 ) of which is the plane containing the fault.

Earthquake Prediction

Earthquake Observations & Interpretations

Statistical earthquake occurrences are believed theorized, not widely accepted nor detecting periodic cycles, records of which old periodicities in time and space for major / great earthquakes cataloged are as old as 700 B.C. with China holding the ‘world’s most extensive catalog’ of approximately one ( 1 ) one-thousand ( 1,000 ) destructive earthquakes where ‘magnitude ( size )’ measurements were assessed based on ‘damage reports’ and experienced periods of ‘shaking’ and ‘other observations’ determining ‘intensity’ of those earthquakes.

Earthquake Attributions to Postulation

Precursor predictability approaches involve what some believe is sheer postulating what the initial trigger mechanisms are that force Earth ruptures, however where this becomes bizarre is where such forces have been attributed, to:

- Weather Severity;

- Volcano Activity; and,

- Ocean Tide Force ( Moon ).

EXAMPLE: Correlations between physical phenomena assumed providing trigger mechanisms for earthquake repetition.

Professionals believe such must always be made to discover whether a causative link is actually present, and they further believe that to-date: ‘no cases possess any trigger mechanism’ – insofaras ‘moderate earthquakes’ to ‘large earthquakes’ unequivocally finding satisfaction with various necessary criteria.

Statistical methods also have been tried with populations of regional earthquakes with such suggested, but never established generally, that the slope b of the regression line between the logarithm of the number of earthquakes and the magnitude for a region may change characteristically with time.

Specifically, the claim is that the b value for the population of ‘foreshocks of a major earthquake’ may be ‘significantly smaller’ than the mean b value for the region averaged ‘over a long interval of time’.

Elastic rebound theory, of earthquake sources, allows rough prediction of the occurrence of large shallow earthquakes – for example – Harry F. Reid gave a crude forecast of the next great earthquake near San Francisco ( theory also predicted, of-course, the place would be along the San Andreas Fault or associated fault ). Geodetic data indicated that during an interval of 50 years relative displacements of 3.2 metres ( 10-1/2 feet ) had occurred at distant points across the fault. Elastic-rebound maximum offset ( along the fault in the 1906 earthquake ) was 6.5 metres. Therefore, ( 6.5 ÷ 3.2 ) × 50 or about 100-years would again elapse before sufficient strain accumulated for the occurrence of an earthquake comparable to that of 1906; premises being regional strain will grow uniformly and various constraints have not been altered by the great 1906 rupture itself ( such as by the onset of slow fault slip ).

Such ‘strain rates’ are now, however being more adequately measured ( along a number of active faults, e.g.San Andreas Fault) using networks of GPS sensors.

Earthquake Prediction Research

For many years prediction research has been influenced by the basic argument that ‘strain accumulates in rock masses in the vicinity of a fault, resulting in crustal deformation.

Deformations have been measured in ‘horizontal directions’ along active faults via ‘trilateration’ and ‘triangulation’ and in ‘vertical directions’ via ‘precise leveling and tiltmeters’.

Investigators ( some ) believe ‘ground-water level changes occur prior to earthquakes’ with variations of such reports from China.

Ground water levels respond to an array of complex factors ( e.g. ‘rainfall’ ) where such would have to be removed if changes in water level changes were studied in relation to earthquakes.

Phenomena Precursor Premonitories

Dilatancy theory ( i.e., volume increase of rock prior to rupture ) once occupied a central position in discussions of premonitory phenomena of earthquakes, but now receives less support based on observations that many solids exhibit dilatancy during deformation. For earthquake prediction, significance of dilatancy, if real, effects various measurable quantities of crustal Earth, i.e. seismic velocity, electric resistivity and ground and water levels. Consequences of dilatancy for earthquake prediction are summarized in the table ( below ):

The best-studied consequence is the effect on seismic velocities. The influence of internal cracks and pores on the elastic properties of rocks can be clearly demonstrated in laboratory measurements of those properties as a function of hydrostatic pressure. In the case of saturated rocks, experiments predict – for shallow earthquakes – that dilatancy occurs as a portion of the crust is stressed to failure, causing a decrease in the velocities of seismic waves. Recovery of velocity is brought about by subsequent rise of the pore pressure of water, which also has the effect of weakening the rock and enhancing fault slip.

Strain buildup in the focal region may have measurable effects on other observable properties, including electrical conductivity and gas concentration. Because the electrical conductivity of rocks depends largely on interconnected water channels within the rocks, resistivity may increase before the cracks become saturated. As pore fluid is expelled from the closing cracks, the local water table would rise and concentrations of gases such as radioactive radon would increase. No unequivocal confirming measurements have yet been published.

Geologic methods of extending the seismicity record back from the present also are being explored. Field studies indicate that the sequence of surface ruptures along major active faults associated with large earthquakes can sometimes be constructed.

An example is the series of large earthquakes inTurkeyin the 20th Century, which were caused mainly by successive westward ruptures of the North Anatolian Fault.

Liquefaction effects preserved in beds of sand and peat have provided evidence ( using radiometric dating methods ) for large paleoearthquakes back more than 1,000 years in many seismically active zones, including the U.S. Northwest Pacific Ocean Coastal Region.

Less well-grounded precursory phenomena, particularly earthquake lights and animal behaviour, sometimes draw more public attention than the precursors discussed above.

Unusual lights in the sky reported, and abnormal animal behaviour, preceding earthquakes are known to seismologists – mostly in anecdotal form.

Both phenomena, are usually explained away in terms of ( prior to earthquakes ) there being:

- Gaseous emmissions from Earth ground;

- Electric stimuli ( various ), e.g. HAARP, etcetera, from Earth ground; and,

- Acoustic stimuli ( various ), e.g. Seismic Wave subsonic emmissions from Earth ground.

At the present time, there is no definitive experimental evidence supporting reported claims of animals sometimes sensing an approaching earthquake.

… [ CENSORED-OUT ] …

Earthquake Hazard Reduction Methods

Considerable work has been done in seismology to explain the characteristics of the recorded ground motions in earthquakes. Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed.

Although earthquakes cause death and destruction via such secondary effects ( i.e. landslides, tsunamis, fires and fault rupture ), the greatest losses ( human lives and property ) result from ‘collapsing man-made structures’ amidst violent ground shaking.

The most effective way to mitigate ( minimize ) damage from earthquakes – from an engineering standpoint – is to design and construct structures capable of withstanding ‘strong ground motions’.

Interpreting recorded ground motions

Most ‘elastic waves’ recorded ( close to an extended fault source ) are complicated and difficult to interpret uniquely.

Understanding such, near-source motion, can be viewed as a 3 part problem.

The first ( 1st ) part stems from ‘elastic wave generations’ radiating ( from the slipping fault ) as the ‘moving rupture sweeps-out an area of slip’ ( along the fault plane ) – within a given time.

Wave pattern production dependencies on several parameters, such as:

Fault dimension and rupture velocity.

Elastic waves ( various types ) radiate, from the vicinity of the moving rupture, in all directions.

Geometric and frictional properties of the fault, critically affect wave pattern radiation from it.

The second ( 2nd ) part of the problem concerns the passage of the waves through the intervening rocks to the site and the effect of geologic conditions.

The third ( 3rd ) part involves the conditions at the recording site itself, such as topography and highly attenuating soils. All these questions must be considered when estimating likely earthquake effects at a site of any proposed structure.

Experience has shown that the ground strong-motion recordings have a variable pattern in detail but predictable regular shapes in general ( except in the case of strong multiple earthquakes ).

EXAMPLE: Actual ground shaking ( acceleration, velocity and displacement ) recorded during an earthquake ( see figure below ).

In a strong horizontal shaking of the ground near the fault source, there is an initial segment of motion made up mainly of P waves, which frequently manifest themselves strongly in the vertical motion. This is followed by the onset of S waves, often associated with a longer-period pulse of ground velocity and displacement related to the near-site fault slip or fling. This pulse is often enhanced in the direction of the fault rupture and normal to it. After the S onset there is shaking that consists of a mixture of S and P waves, but the S motions become dominant as the duration increases. Later, in the horizontal component, surface waves dominate, mixed with some S body waves. Depending on the distance of the site from the fault and the structure of the intervening rocks and soils, surface waves are spread out into long trains.

Expectant Seismic Hazard Maps Constructed

In many regions, seismic expectancy maps or hazard maps are now available for planning purposes. The anticipated intensity of ground shaking is represented by a number called the peak acceleration or the peak velocity.

To avoid weaknesses found in earlier earthquake hazard maps, the following general principles are usually adopted today:

The map should take into account not only the size but also the frequency of earthquakes.

The broad regionalization pattern should use historical seismicity as a database, including the following factors: major tectonic trends, acceleration attenuation curves, and intensity reports.

Regionalization should be defined by means of contour lines with design parameters referred to ordered numbers on neighbouring contour lines ( this procedure minimizes sensitivity concerning the exact location of boundary lines between separate zones ).

The map should be simple and not attempt to microzone the region.

The mapped contoured surface should not contain discontinuities, so that the level of hazard progresses gradually and in order across any profile drawn on the map.

Developing resistant structures

Developing engineered structural designs that are able to resist the forces generated by seismic waves can be achieved either by following building codes based on hazard maps or by appropriate methods of analysis. Many countries reserve theoretical structural analyses for the larger, more costly, or critical buildings to be constructed in the most seismically active regions, while simply requiring that ordinary structures conform to local building codes. Economic realities usually determine the goal, not of preventing all damage in all earthquakes but of minimizing damage in moderate, more common earthquakes and ensuring no major collapse at the strongest intensities. An essential part of what goes into engineering decisions on design and into the development and revision of earthquake-resistant design codes is therefore seismological, involving measurement of strong seismic waves, field studies of intensity and damage, and the probability of earthquake occurrence.

Earthquake risk can also be reduced by rapid post-earthquake response. Strong-motion accelerographs have been connected in some urban areas, such as Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Mexico City, to interactive computers.

Recorded waves are correlated with seismic intensity scales and rapidly displayed graphically on regional maps via the World Wide Web.

Exploration of the Earth’s interior with seismic waves

Seismological Tomography

Deep Structure Earth seismological data from several sources, including:

- Nuclear explosions containing P-Waves and S-Waves;

- Earthquakes containing P-Waves and S-Waves;

- Earth ‘surface wave dispersions’ from ‘distant earthquakes’; and,

- Earth ‘planetary vibration’ from ‘Great Earthquakes’

One of the major aims of seismology was to infer a minimum set of properties surrounding the planet interior of Earth that might explain recorded seismic ‘wave trains’ in detail.

Deep Structure Earth exploration made ‘tremendous progress during the first half of the 20th Century ( 1900s – 1950s ), realizing goals was severely limited until the 1960s because of laborious effort required just to evaluate theoretical models and process large amounts of recorded earthquake data.

Today’s application of supercomputer high-speed data processing enormous quantities of stored data and information retrieval capabilities opened information technology ( IT ) passageways leading to major advancements in the way data is manipulated ( data handling ) for advanced theoretical modeling, research analytics and developmental prototyping.

Earth structure realistic modeling studies by researchers since the middle 1970s include continental and oceanic boundaries, mountains and river valleys rather than simple structures such as those involving variation only with depth, and various technical developments have benefited observational seismology.

EXAMPLE: Deep Structure Earth significant exploration using 3D ( three dimensional ) imaging with equally impressive display ( monitor ) equipment possible from advanced microprocessor architecture redesign, new discoveries of materials and new concepts making seismic exploratory techniques developed by petroleum industry adaptations ( e.g. seismic reflection ) highly recognized as adopted procedures.

Deep Structure Earth major methods for determining planet interior is detailed analysis of seismograms of seismic waves; noting earthquake readings additionally provide estimates of, Earth internal:

- Wave velocities;

- Density; and,

- Parameters of ‘elasticity’ ( stretchable ) and ‘inelasticity’ ( fixed ).

Earthquake Travel Time

Primary procedure is to measure the travel times of various wave types, such as P and S, from their source to the recording seismograph. First, however, identification of each wave type with its ray path through the Earth must be made.

Seismic rays for many paths of P and S waves leaving the earthquake focus F are shown in the figure.

Deep-Focus Deep-Structure Earth Coremetrics

Rays corresponding to waves that have been reflected at the Earth’s outer surface (or possibly at one of the interior discontinuity surfaces) are denoted as PP, PS, SP, PSS, and so on. For example, PS corresponds to a wave that is of P type before surface reflection and of S type afterward. In addition, there are rays such as pPP, sPP, and sPS, the symbols p and s corresponding to an initial ascent to the outer surface as P or S waves, respectively, from a deep focus.

An especially important class of rays is associated with a discontinuity surface separating the central core of the Earth from the mantle at a depth of about 2,900 km (1,800 miles) below the outer surface. The symbol c is used to indicate an upward reflection at this discontinuity. Thus, if a P wave travels down from a focus to the discontinuity surface in question, the upward reflection into an S wave is recorded at an observing station as the ray PcS and similarly with PcP, ScS, and ScP. The symbol K is used to denote the part (of P type) of the path of a wave that passes through the liquid central core. Thus, the ray SKS corresponds to a wave that starts as an S wave, is refracted into the central core as a P wave, and is refracted back into the mantle, wherein it finally emerges as an S wave. Such rays as SKKS correspond to waves that have suffered an internal reflection at the boundary of the central core.

The discovery of the existence of an inner core in 1936 by the Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann made it necessary to introduce additional basic symbols. For paths of waves inside the central core, the symbols i and I are used analogously to c and K for the whole Earth; therefore, i indicates reflection upward at the boundary between the outer and inner portions of the central core, and I corresponds to the part (of P type) of the path of a wave that lies inside the inner portion. Thus, for instance, discrimination needs to be made between the rays PKP, PKiKP, and PKIKP. The first of these corresponds to a wave that has entered the outer part of the central core but has not reached the inner core, the second to one that has been reflected upward at the inner core boundary, and the third to one that has penetrated into the inner portion.

By combining the symbols p, s, P, S, c, K, i, and I in various ways, notation is developed for all the main rays associated with body earthquake waves.

Hidden Inner Earth Deep Structure Anomalies

The symbol J, introduced to correspond with S waves located within Earth’s inner core, is only evidence if such ( if ever ) be found for such waves. Use of times of travel along rays to infer a hidden structure is analogous to the use of X-rays in medical tomography. The method involves reconstructing an image of internal anomalies from measurements made at the outer surface. Nowadays, hundreds of thousands of travel times of P and S waves are available in earthquake catalogs for the tomographic imaging of the Earth’s interior and the mapping of internal structure.

Inner Earth Deep Structure

Thinest & Thickest Part of Earth’s Crust

Inner Earth, based on earthquake records and imaging studies, are officially represented, as:

A solid layer flowing patterns of a mantle, at its ’thickest point’ being about 1,800-miles ( 2,900 kilometers ) thick, although at its ‘thinest point’ less than 6-miles ( 10 kilometers ) beneath the ocean seafloor bed beneath the surface of the ultra-deep sea.

The thin surface rock layer surrounding the mantle is the crust, whose lower boundary is called the Mohorovičić discontinuity. In normal continental regions the crust is about 30 kilometers to 40 km thick; there is usually a superficial low-velocity sedimentary layer underlain by a zone in which seismic velocity increases with depth. Beneath this zone there is a layer in which P-wave velocities in some places fall from 6 to 5.6 km per second. The middle part of the crust is characterized by a heterogeneous zone with P velocities of nearly 6 to 6.3 km per second. The lowest layer of the crust ( about 10 km thick ) has significantly higher P velocities, ranging up to nearly 7 km per second.

In the deep ocean there is a sedimentary layer that is about 1 km thick. Underneath is the lower layer of the oceanic crust, which is about 4 km thick. This layer is inferred to consist of basalt that formed where extrusions of basaltic magma at oceanic ridges have been added to the upper part of lithospheric plates as they spread away from the ridge crests. This crustal layer cools as it moves away from the ridge crest, and its seismic velocities increase correspondingly.

Below Earth’s mantle at its ‘thickest point’ exists a shell depth of 1,800 miles ( 2,255 km ), which seismic waves indicate, has liquid property form, and at Earth’s ‘shallowest point’ only 6-miles ( 10 kilometers ) located beneath the ultra-deep seafloor of the planet ocean.

At the very centre of the planet is a separate solid core with a radius of 1,216 km. Recent work with observed seismic waves has revealed three-dimensional structural details inside the Earth, especially in the crust and lithosphere, under the subduction zones, at the base of the mantle, and in the inner core. These regional variations are important in explaining the dynamic history of the planet.

Long-Period Global Oscillations

Sometimes earthquakes can be so great, the entire planet Earth will vibrate like a ringing bell’s echo, with the deepest tone of vibration recorded by modern man on planet Earth is a period of measurement where the length of time between the arrival of successive crests in a wave train has been 54-minutes considered by human beings as ‘grave’ ( an extremely significant danger ).

Knowledge of these vibrations has come from a remarkable extension in the ‘range of periods of ground movements’ now able to be recorded by modern ‘digital long-period seismographs’ spanning the entire allowable spectrum of earthquake wave periods, from: ordinary P waves ( with periods of tenths of seconds ) to vibrations ( with periods on the order of 12-hours and 24-hours ), i.e. those movements occuring within Earth ocean tides.

The measurements of vibrations of the whole Earth provide important information on the properties of the interior of the planet. It should be emphasized that these free vibrations are set up by the energy release of the earthquake source but continue for many hours and sometimes even days. For an elastic sphere such as the Earth, two types of vibrations are known to be possible. In one type, called S modes, or spheroidal vibrations, the motions of the elements of the sphere have components along the radius as well as along the tangent. In the second [ 2nd ] type, which are designated as T modes or torsional vibrations, there is shear but no radial displacements. The nomenclature is nSl and nTl, where the letters n and l are related to the surfaces in the vibration at which there is zero motion. Four ( 4 ) examples are illustrated in the figure. The subscript n gives a count of the number of internal zero-motion ( nodal ) surfaces, and l indicates the number of surface nodal lines.

Several hundred types of S and T vibrations have been identified and the associated periods measured. The amplitudes of the ground motion in the vibrations have been determined for particular earthquakes, and, more important, the attenuation of each component vibration has been measured. The dimensionless measure of this decay constant is called the quality factor Q. The greater the value of Q, the less the wave or vibration damping. Typically, for oS10 and oT10, the Q values are about 250.

The rate of decay of the vibrations of the whole Earth with the passage of time can be seen in the figure, where they appear superimposed for 20 hours of the 12-hour tidal deformations of the Earth. At the bottom of the figure these vibrations have been split up into a series of peaks, each with a definite frequency, similar to that of the spectrum of light.

Such a spectrum indicates the relative amplitude of each harmonic present in the free oscillations. If the physical properties of the Earth’s interior were known, all these individual peaks could be calculated directly. Instead, the internal structure must be estimated from the observed peaks.

Recent research has shown that observations of long-period oscillations of the Earth discriminate fairly finely between different Earth models. In applying the observations to improve the resolution and precision of such representations of the planet’s internal structure, a considerable number of Earth models are set up, and all the periods of their free oscillations are computed and checked against the observations. Models can then be successively eliminated until only a small range remains. In practice, the work starts with existing models; efforts are made to amend them by sequential steps until full compatibility with the observations is achieved, within the uncertainties of the observations. Even so, the resulting computed Earth structure is not a unique solution to the problem.

Extraterrestrial Seismic Phenomena

Space vehicles have carried equipment onto the our Moon and Mars surface recording seismic waves from where seismologists on Earth receive telemetry signals from seismic events from both.

By 1969, seismographs had been placed at six sites on the Moon during the U.S. Apollo missions. Recording of seismic data ceased in September 1977. The instruments detected between 600 and 3,000 moonquakes during each year of their operation, though most of these seismic events were very small. The ground noise on the lunar surface is low compared with that of the Earth, so that the seismographs could be operated at very high magnifications. Because there was more than one station on the Moon, it was possible to use the arrival times of P and S waves at the lunar stations from the moonquakes to determine foci in the same way as is done on the Earth.

Moonquakes are of three types. First, there are the events caused by the impact of lunar modules, booster rockets, and meteorites. The lunar seismograph stations were able to detect meteorites hitting the Moon’s surface more than 1,000 km (600 miles) away. The two other types of moonquakes had natural sources in the Moon’s interior: they presumably resulted from rock fracturing, as on Earth. The most common type of natural moonquake had deep foci, at depths of 600 to 1,000 km; the less common variety had shallow focal depths.

Seismological research on Mars has been less successful. Only one of the seismometers carried to the Martian surface by the U.S. Viking landers during the mid-1970s remained operational, and only one potential marsquake was detected in 546 Martian days.

Historical Major Earthquakes

Major historical earthquakes chronological listing in table ( below ).

 

Major Earthquake History

Year

Region / Area

Affected

* Mag.

Intensity

Human Death

Numbers

( approx. )

Remarks

c. 1500 BCE

Knossos,

Crete

(Greece)

X

One of several events that leveled the capital of Minoan civilization, this quake accompanied the explosion of the nearby volcanic islandof Thera.

27 BCE

Thebes

(Egypt)

This quake cracked one of the statues known as the Colossi of Memnon, and for almost two centuries the “singing Memnon” emitted musical tones on certain mornings as it was warmed by the Sun’s rays.

62 CE

Pompeii

and Herculaneum

(Italy)

X

These two prosperous Roman cities had not yet recovered from the quake of 62 when they were buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79.

115

AntiochAntakya,

(Turkey)

XI

A centre of Hellenistic and early Christian culture, Antiochsuffered many devastating quakes; this one almost killed the visiting Roman emperor Trajan.

1556

Shaanxi

( province )

China

IX

830,000

Deadliest earthquake ever recorded, possible.

1650

Cuzco

(Peru)

8.1

VIII

Many ofCuzco’s Baroque monuments date to the rebuilding of the city after this quake.

1692

Port Royal (Jamaica)

2,000

Much of thisBritish West Indiesport, a notorious haven for buccaneers and slave traders, sank beneath the sea following the quake.

1693

southeasternSicily,

(Italy)

XI

93,000

Syracuse, Catania, and Ragusa were almost completely destroyed but were rebuilt with a Baroque splendour that still attracts tourists.

1755

Lisbon,Portugal

XI

62,000

The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 was felt as far away asAlgiers and caused a tsunami that reached theCaribbean.

1780

Tabriz

(Iran)

7.7

200,000

This ancient highland city was destroyed and rebuilt, as it had been in 791, 858, 1041, and 1721 and would be again in 1927.
1811 – 1812

NewMadrid,Missouri

(USA)

7.5 – 7.7

XII

A series of quakes at the New Madrid Fault caused few deaths, but the New Madrid earthquake of 1811 – 1812 rerouted portions of the Mississippi River and was felt fromCanada to theGulf of Mexico.

1812

Caracas

(Venezuela)

9.6

X

26,000

A provincial town in 1812,Caracasrecovered and eventually becameVenezuela’s capital.

1835

Concepción,

(Chile)

8.5

35

British naturalist Charles Darwin, witnessing this quake, marveled at the power of the Earth to destroy cities and alter landscapes.

1886

Charleston,South Carolina

(USA)

IX

60

This was one of the largest quakes ever to hit the easternUnited States.

1895

Ljubljana

(Slovenia)

6.1

VIII

ModernLjubljanais said to have been born in the rebuilding after this quake.

1906

San Francisco,California

(USA)

7.9

XI

700

San Franciscostill dates its modern development from the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and the resulting fires.

1908

Messina and Reggio di Calabria,Italy

7.5

XII

110,000

These two cities on theStraitofMessinawere almost completely destroyed in what is said to beEurope’s worst earthquake ever.

1920

Gansu

( province )

China

8.5

200,000

Many of the deaths in this quake-prone province were caused by huge landslides.

1923

Tokyo-Yokohama,

(Japan)

7.9

142,800

Japan’s capital and its principal port, located on soft alluvial ground, suffered severely from the Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake of 1923.

1931

Hawke Bay,New Zealand

7.9

256

The bayside towns of Napier and Hastings were rebuilt in an Art Deco style that is now a great tourist attraction.

1935

Quetta (Pakistan)

7.5

X

20,000

The capital of Balochistan province was severely damaged in the most destructive quake to hitSouth Asiain the 20th century.

1948

Ashgabat (Turkmenistan)

7.3

X

176,000

Every year,Turkmenistancommemorates the utter destruction of its capital in this quake.

1950

Assam,India

8.7

X

574

The largest quake ever recorded inSouth Asiakilled relatively few people in a lightly populated region along the Indo-Chinese border.

1960

Valdivia

and

Puerto Montt,

(Chile)

9.5

XI

5,700

The Chile earthquake of 1960, the largest quake ever recorded in the world, produced a tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean toJapan, where it killed more than 100 people.

1963

Skopje,Macedonia

6.9

X

1,070

The capital ofMacedoniahad to be rebuilt almost completely following this quake.

1964

Prince William Sound,Alaska,U.S.

9.2

131

Anchorage, Seward, and Valdez were damaged, but most deaths in the Alaska earthquake of 1964 were caused by tsunamis inAlaska and as far away asCalifornia.

1970

Chimbote,Peru

7.9

70,000

Most of the damage and loss of life resulting from the Ancash earthquake of 1970 was caused by landslides and the collapse of poorly constructed buildings.

1972

Managua,Nicaragua

6.2

10,000

The centre of the capital ofNicaraguawas almost completely destroyed; the business section was later rebuilt some 6 miles (10 km) away.

1976

Guatemala City,Guatemala

7.5

IX

23,000

Rebuilt following a series of devastating quakes in 1917–18, the capital ofGuatemalaagain suffered great destruction.

1976

Tangshan,

(China)

7.5

X

242,000

In the Tangshan earthquake of 1976, this industrial city was almost completely destroyed in the worst earthquake disaster in modern history.

1985

Michoacán state and Mexico City,Mexico

8.1

IX

10,000

The centre of Mexico City, built largely on the soft subsoil of an ancient lake, suffered great damage in the Mexico City earthquake of 1985.

1988

Spitak and Gyumri,Armenia

6.8

X

25,000

This quake destroyed nearly one-third ofArmenia’s industrial capacity.

1989

Loma Prieta,California,U.S.

7.1

IX

62

The San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989, the first sizable movement of the San Andreas Fault since 1906, collapsed a section of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.

1994

Northridge,

California

(USA)

6.8

IX

60

Centred in the urbanized San Fernando Valley, the Northridge earthquake of 1994 collapsed freeways and some buildings, but damage was limited by earthquake-resistant construction.

1995

Kobe,

(Japan)

6.9

XI

5,502

The Great Hanshin Earthquake destroyed or damaged 200,000 buildings and left 300,000 people homeless.

1999

Izmit,Turkey

7.4

X

17,000

The Izmit earthquake of 1999 heavily damaged the industrial city ofIzmit and the naval base at Golcuk.

1999

Nan-t’ou county,Taiwan

7.7

X

2,400

The Taiwan earthquake of 1999, the worst to hitTaiwan since 1935, provided a wealth of digitized data for seismic and engineering studies.

2001

Bhuj,

Gujarat

( state )

India

8.0

X

20,000

The Bhuj earthquake of 2001, possibly the deadliest ever to hitIndia, was felt acrossIndia andPakistan.

2003

Bam

(Iran)

6.6

IX

26,000

This ancientSilk Roadfortress city, built mostly of mud brick, was almost completely destroyed.

2004

Aceh

( province )

Sumatra

(Indonesia)

9.1

200,000

The deaths resulting from this offshore quake actually were caused by a tsunami originating in the Indian Ocean that, in addition to killing more than 150,000 inIndonesia, killed people as far away asSri Lanka andSomalia.

2005

Azad Kashmir

(Pakistanadministered )

( Kashmir )

7.6

VIII

80,000

The Kashmir earthquake of 2005, perhaps the deadliest shock ever to strikeSouth Asia, left hundreds of thousands of people exposed to the coming winter weather.

2008

Sichuan

( province )

(China

7.9

IX

69,000

The Sichuan earthquake of 2008 left over 5 million people homeless across the region, and over half of Beichuan city was destroyed by the initial seismic event and the release of water from a lake formed by nearby landslides.

2009

L’Aquila,

(Italy)

6.3

VIII

300

The L’Aquila earthquake of 2009 left more than 60,000 people homeless and damaged many of the city’s medieval buildings.

2010

Port-au-Prince,

(Haiti)

7.0

IX

316,000

The Haiti earthquake of 2010 devastated the metropolitan area ofPort-au-Prince and left an estimated 1.5 million survivors homeless.

2010

Maule,

(Chile)

8.8

VIII

521

The Chile earthquake of 2010 produced widespread damage inChile’s central region and triggered tsunami warnings throughout the Pacific basin.

2010

Christchurch,(New Zealand)

7.0

VIII

180

Most of the devastation associated with the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11 resulted from a magnitude-6.3 aftershock that struck on February 22, 2011.

2011

Honshu,

(Japan)

9.0

VIII

20,000

The powerful Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011, which sent tsunami waves across the Pacific basin, caused widespread damage throughout easternHonshu.

2011

Erciş

And

Van,

(Turkey)

7.2

IX

The Erciş-Van earthquake of 2011 destroyed several apartment complexes and shattered mud-brick homes throughout the region.
  Data Sources: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ), National Geophysical Data Center ( NGDC ), Significant Earthquake Database ( SED ), a searchable online database using the Catalog of Significant Earthquakes 2150 B.C. – 1991 A.D. ( with Addenda ), and U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ), Earthquake Hazards Program.  * Measures of magnitude may differ from other sources.

ARTICLE

AdditionalReading

Earthquakes are covered mainly in books on seismology.

Recommended introductory texts, are:

Bruce A. Bolt, Earthquakes, 4th ed. (1999), and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (1993); and,

Jack Oliver, Shocks and Rocks: Seismology and the Plate Tectonics Revolution (1996).

Comprehensive books on key aspects of seismic hazards, are:

Leon Reiter, Earthquake Hazard Analysis – Issues and Insights (1990); and,

Robert S. Yeats, Kerry Sieh, and Clarence R. Allen, The Geology of Earthquakes (1997).

A history of discrimination, between:

Underground nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes, is given by:

Bruce A. Bolt, “Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil” ( 1976 ).

More advanced texts that treat the theory of earthquake waves in detail, are:

Agustín Udías, Principles of Seismology (1999);

Thorne Lay and Terry C. Wallace, Modern Global Seismology (1995);

Peter M. Shearer, Introduction to Seismology (1999); and,

K.E. Bullen and Bruce A. Bolt, An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology, 4th ed. (1985).

LINKS

Year in Review

Britannica provides coverage of “earthquake” in the following Year in Review articles.

Bhutan  ( in  Bhutan )

geophysics  ( in  geophysics )

Japan

Kyrgyzstan  (in  Kyrgyzstan)

Nepal  (in  Nepal)

New Zealand  (in  New Zealand )

Chile  (in  Chile: Year In Review 2010)

China  (in  China: Year In Review 2010)

“Engineering for Earthquakes”  ( in  Engineering for Earthquakes: Year In Review 2010 (earthquake) )

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2010)

Haiti  (in  Haiti: Year In Review 2010; in  Haiti earthquake of 2010 )

Mauritius  (in  Mauritius: Year In Review 2010)

New Zealand  (in  New Zealand: Year In Review 2010 )

Bhutan  (in  Bhutan: Year In Review 2009)

Costa Rica  (in  Costa Rica: Year In Review 2009 )

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2009)

Indonesia  (in  Indonesia: Year In Review 2009)

Italy  (in  Italy: Year In Review 2009; in  Vatican City State: Year In Review 2009 )

Samoa  (in  Samoa: Year In Review 2009)

“Major Earthquake Shakes China’s Sichuan Province, A”  ( in  A Major Earthquake Shakes China’s Sichuan Province: Year In Review 2008 (earthquake) )

China  (in  China: Year In Review 2008; in  United Nations: Year In Review 2008 )

Congo, Democratic Republic of the  (in  Democratic Republic of the Congo: Year In Review 2008)

geology  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2008)

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2008 )

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2007)

paleontology  (in  Life Sciences: Year In Review 2007)

Peru  (in  Peru: Year In Review 2007 )

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2006)

glaciers  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2006)

Mozambique  (in  Mozambique: Year In Review 2006)

archaeology  ( in  Anthropology and Archaeology: Year In Review 2005 )

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2005)

India  (in  India: Year In Review 2005 )

Pakistan(in  Pakistan: Year In Review 2005 )

“Cataclysm in Kashmir”  (in  Cataclysm in Kashmir: Year In Review 2005 (Jammu and Kashmir))

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2004)

Japan  (in  Japan: Year In Review 2004)

tsunami  (in  The Deadliest Tsunami: Year In Review 2004 (tsunami))

geophysics  (in  Earth Sciences: Year In Review 1996)

geophysics  (in  Earth and Space Sciences: Year In Review 1995)

LINKS

Other Britannica Sites

Get involved Share

Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Earthquake – Children’s Encyclopedia ( Ages 8-11 ) – During an earthquake, huge masses of rock move beneath the Earth’s surface and cause the ground to shake. Earthquakes occur constantly around the world. Often they are too small for people to feel at all. Sometimes, however, earthquakes cause great losses of life and property.

Earthquake – Student Encyclopedia ( Ages 11 and up ) – Sudden shaking of the ground that occurs when masses of rock change position below Earth’s surface is called an earthquake. The shifting masses send out shock waves that may be powerful enough to alter the surface, thrusting up cliffs and opening great cracks in the ground.

The topic earthquake is discussed at the following external Web sites.

Citations

To cite this page: MLAAPAHarvardChicago Manual of Style

MLA Style: “earthquake.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176199/earthquake

Reference

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176199/earthquake/247989/Shallow-intermediate-and-deep-foci?anchor=ref105456

- – – -

Feeling ‘educated’? Think you’re out-of the earthquake and tsunami water subject?

March 23, 2012 news, however contradicts decades of professional scientific knowledge and studies so, if you were just feeling ‘overly educated’ about earthquakes and tsunamis – don’t be. You’re now lost at sea, in the same proverbial ‘boat’, with all those global government scientific and technical ( S&T ) professionals who thought they understood previous information surrounding earthquakes and tsunamis.

After comparing Japan 9.0 ‘earthquake directional arrows’, depicted on the charts ( further above ), with ocean currents, tidal charts and trade winds from the global jet stream there’s a problem that cannot be explained when on March 23, 2012 British Columbia, Canada reported its northwest Pacific Ocean coastal sea waters held a 100-foot fishing boat ‘still afloat’ – more than 1-year after the Japan tsunami from its 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011.

[ IMAGE ( above ): 11MAR11 Japan 9.0 earthquake tsunami vistim fishing boat ( 50-metre ) found more than 1-year later still adrift in the Pacific Ocean - but thousands of miles away - off North America Pacific Ocean west coastal territory of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada ( Click on image to enlarge ) ]

- – – -

Source: CBS News – British Columbia ( Canada )

Tsunami Linked Fishing Boat Adrift Off B.C.

Nobody Believed Aboard 50-Meter Vessel Swept Away In 2011 Japanese Disaster CBC News

March 23, 2012 21:35 ( PST ) Updated from: 23MAR12 18:59 ( PST )

A Japanese fishing boat that was washed out to sea in the March 2011 Japanese tsunami has been located adrift off the coast of British Columbia ( B.C. ), according to the federal Transport Ministry.

The 50-metre vessel was spotted by the crew of an aircraft on routine patrol about 275 kilometres off Haida Gwaii, formerly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands, ministry spokeswoman Sau Sau Liu said Friday.

“Close visual aerial inspection and hails to the ship indicate there is no one on board,” Liu said. “The owner of the vessel has been contacted and made aware of its location.”

U.S. Senator Maria Cantwell, ofWashington, said in a release that the boat was expected to drift slowly southeast.

“On its current trajectory and speed, the vessel would not [ yet ] make landfall for approximately 50-days,” Cantwell said. Cantwell did not specify where landfall was expected to be.

First large debris

The boat is the first large piece of debris found following the earthquake and tsunami that struckJapanone year ago.

Scientists, at the University of Hawaii say a field of about 18,000,000 million tonnes of debris is slowly being carried by ocean currents toward North America. The field is estimated to be about 3,200 kilometres long and 1,600 kilometres wide.

Scientists have estimated some of the debris would hit B.C. shores by 2014.

Some people on the west coast of Vancouver Island believe ‘smaller pieces of debris have already washed ashore there’.

The March 11, 2011, tsunami was generated after a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of northern Japan. The huge waves and swells of the tsunami moved inland and then retreated back into the Pacific Ocean, carrying human beings, wreckage of buildings, cars and boats.

Nearly 19,000 people were killed.

Reference

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2012/03/23/bc-fishing-boat-tsunami-debris.html?cmp=rss

- – – -

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Kentron Intellect Research Vault

E-MAIL: KentronIntellectResearchVault@Gmail.Com

WWW: http://KentronIntellectResearchVault.WordPress.Com

References

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/japan/031111_M9.0prelim_geodetic_slip.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_magnitude_scale
http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic110315.2-index-e.html
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu
http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/slip_history/2011_taiheiyo-oki
http://supersites.earthobservations.org/ARIA_japan_co_postseismic.pdf
ftp://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/usrs/ARIA/README.txt
http://speclib.jpl.nasa.gov/documents/jhu_desc
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/pacnw/paleo/greateq/conf.php
http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/array-arrays-elusive-ets-cascadia-subduction-zone
http://wcda.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca:8080/wcda/tams_e.php
http://www.pnsn.org/tremor
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/Quakes/quakes_all.html
http://nthmp.tsunami.gov
http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov
http://www.pnsn.org/NEWS/PRESS_RELEASES/CAFE/CAFE_intro.html
http://www.pnsn.org/WEBICORDER/DEEPTREM/summer2009.html
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/prepare
http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/usarray
http://www.iris.washington.edu/hq
http://www.iris.edu/dms/dmc
http://www.iris.edu/dhi/clients.htm
http://www.iris.edu/hq/middle_america/docs/presentations/1026/MORENO.pdf
http://www.unavco.org/aboutus/history.html
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring/anss
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/asl
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/asl/data
http://www.usarray.org/files/docs/pubs/US_Data_Plan_Final-V7.pdf
http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/gis/station_comma_list.asc
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/physics/lab
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/asl/data
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/Pangaea.html
http://coaps.fsu.edu/scatterometry/meeting/docs/2009_august/intro/shimoda.pdf
http://coaps.fsu.edu/scatterometry/meeting/past.php
http://eqinfo.ucsd.edu/dbrecenteqs/anza
http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/seismic
http://conceptactivityresearchvault.wordpress.com/2011/03/28/global-environmental-intelligence-gei
http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=157&page=1
https://login.afwa.af.mil/register/
https://login.afwa.af.mil/amserver/UI/Login?goto=https%3A%2F%2Fweather.afwa.af.mil%3A443%2FHOST_HOME%2FDNXM%2FWRF%2Findex.html
http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/news/2011/space-110225-afns01.htm
http://www.wrf-model.org/plots/wrfrealtime.php

Earth Events Forecast

Eyjafjallajokull Iceland volcano
[ PHOTO ( above ): click to enlarge image ]

Earth Events Forecast
by, Kentron Intellect Research Vault ( KIRV )

March 7, 2011 17:32:08 ( PST ) Updated ( February 27, 2011 )

LOS ANGELES – November 10, 2011 – The U.S. Congress House of Representatives Committee on Science and the U.S. Congress House of Representatives Sub-Committee on Environment, Technology and Standards held a hearing on October 30, 2003 about ‘Space Weather’ and the roles and responsibilities of various government agencies held as to information collection, dissemination and use of ‘space weather’ data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ), U.S. National Aeronautic and Space Agency ( NASA ), U.S. Air Force Weather Agency and representatives of government contractors in the private-sector. Amongst questions presented, were the following:

- “What is the ‘proper level of funding for agencies’ involved with ‘space environmental predictions’?” and,

- “What is the importance of ‘predictions to industry and commerce’?”

Interestingly, the U.S. Congress House of Representatives Sub-Committee hearing – from October 19, 2003 through November 7, 2003 – happened to be during the same time period when the Sun’s strongest Coronal Mass Ejections ( CME ) or “Solar Flares” were erupting; greater than at any time in 30-years.

Those late 2003 enormous solar flare outbursts consisted of Solar Energetic Particle ( SEP ) energy that triggered intense Solar Energetic Particle Events ( SEPE ) on Earth resulting in Geomagnetic Storms that ‘instantly brought serious disruptions’ to U.S. national infrastructure electricity grids.

Solar Particle Element ( SPE ) releases cause Geomagnetic Induced Currents ( GIC ) – also known as – “Auroral Currents” consisting of high-energy electrons ( ‘invisible’ unless in Earth’s ’upper atmospheric region’ where the ”Aurora Borealis” or “Northern Lights” appear ) made ‘visible’ in Earth’s ‘lower atmospheric region’ bombarded resulting in serious impacts on ’national electricity infrastructure grids‘ becoming instantly overcharged ( overloaded ) by what is referred to as a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ), and during latter 2003 such was this U.S. national emergency throughout North Europe where amongst many utility companies SYDKRAFT ( Sweden ) reported:

- Electricity Generation Supply Failure; – Blackouts ( ‘no electricity’ & ‘no communications’ ); and, – Transformer Explosions ( ‘coils’ therein for ‘retaining electricity’ ) damaged by overloads.

NASA issued a Space Flight Early Warning Alert, because:

- Solar Radiation level heightening caused NASA to issue its directive ordering International Space Station ( ISS ) astronauts to ‘enter their onboard solar radiation shelter’ within that Earth orbiting spacecraft.

All passenger airlines worldwide were contacted and issued an ‘unprecedented ( never before ) order’ to take ‘evasive maneuvers’ away from ‘flying within’ or ‘scheduled to fly within’, ‘both’:

Polar routes ( Earth’s ‘upper hemisphere’ and ‘lower hemisphere’ ); and,

Equator routes ( Earth’s ‘lower hemisphere’ ).

- Aircraft destinations in ‘both aforementioned routes’ normally occur in ‘high Earth latitudes’, however these flights were ‘purposely redirected’ to, avoid:

- Solar ‘radiation level exposure’ hazards for all ‘passengers’ and ‘crew members’; – Damage to aircraft from electronic system failure; and, – Communication and navigation failures from satellite damages.

Costs, for airlines, was up to $100,000 dollars for ‘each flight’ re-routed.

- Satellites, plus deep space missions, reported ‘numerous anomalies at all orbit levels’.

Later, NASA GSFC Space Science Mission Operations Team estimated a minimum of 59% of all ‘space science missions’ were impacted by the solar flares of late 2003.

- Casualties ( from solar flares ) in space, costs amongst many, were the:

- ADEOS 2 spacecraft, which cost $640,000,000 million dollars to build plus its onboard $150,000,000 million dollar NASA SeaWinds instrument, all lost by serious impact from these solar flares.

Total damage costs, resultant from the late 2003 impact of this Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ), was ‘never publicly reported’.

- -

Solar flare outbursts, varying in intensity and variety, impact Earth global business operations ( to varying degrees ) ‘vulnerable to serious space weather’ from serious high-level solar flare activity.

Solar Energetic Particle Events ( SEPE ), which ‘affects everyone on Earth’, should mobilize governments because of, how:

- Quickly ( from a ‘few hours’ to ’4-days’ ) ‘space weather’ hits Earth; and,

- Human life can be ‘instantly impacted’ because of ‘society operational heavy reliance’ from ‘Earth based electronics’ to ‘space based communication equipment’.

Since at least 2001, ‘other superpower country governments’ ( e.g. China, Russia, France, Japan, etc. ) have been providing ‘public service early warnings” for ‘serious’ “space weather” in order to ‘preserve the human life of citizens’.

By 2004, tragically the United States of America ( USA ) National Research Council ( NRC ) Committee on Solar and Space Physics ( CSSP ) had only ‘begun to consider’ but ‘had not yet even considered’ any ‘need for ‘human impact assessments’ or ‘economic impact systematicals’ surrounding the subject of serious ‘solar flare’ impacts being an immediate ‘key critical need’ for everyone’s reliance on ‘space weather information news’ to begin reigning supreme over all publicly broadcasted ( television and radio ) news stories; ‘space weather assessments’ have been in ‘existence for decades’ – and at ‘considerable taxpayer costs’ for NASA and NOAA ‘programs’ and ‘projects’.

The United States of America government could easily provide ‘widely broadcasted public service educational announcements’ ( in multiple languages ) on a “Space Weather Channel”, providing:

1. Space Weather Education;

2. Space Weather Preparedness; and,

3. Space Weather Alert Warnings.

To-date ( 26FEB11 ), the U.S. has ‘exhibited absolutely no regard for its citizens’ surrounding ‘space weather’ importance with, ‘no’:

A. Lessons on ‘serious space weather;

B. Planning for ‘serious space weather’; and,

B. Announcements for ‘serious space weather’.

Think-tanks, under government contracts, studied and provided information to government how to order ‘national highway safety bridge improvements’ and thereby raise taxes – and by many other means for a variety of other reasons too.

Alternatively, citizens could receive an ‘immediate extension on surviving life’ upon experiencing a “National Serious Space Weather Event” with a ‘government public service television channel broadcast’ ( 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, 365-days a year ) for ‘all citizens’ ( elders & youth ) dealing more effectively by ‘single-handedly managing their own affairs’ ( as best they can ) during the onslaught of a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ), by:

1. Learning.

a. Solar Flare High-Energy Particle Hazards; b. Earth Magnetic Core Trigger Mechanisms; c. Earth Axis Plate Shifts ( Earthquake & Tsunamis ); and, d. Volcanic ( Eruptions & Thermal Atmospheric Lightning Storms ).

2. Understanding.

a. Natural Disasters ( Type Dependent ); and, b. Planning ( Geography, Elevations, Weather ).

3. Planning.

a. Survival Methods ( rudimentary basics – adults & children ).

Learning – kept real simple – is important because, during an actual emergency ‘common sense’ fails to act sometimes because ‘emergencies are not routine matters’ but rarely exercised by most, except well-trained ‘emergency first responders’ whom are unfortunately ‘not trained on what to do during all types of disasters’, and this is why it is so ‘very important for everyone to know what to do’ – ‘when’ during ‘what type of disaster’.

Many do ‘not exercise proper judgment’ during an emergency, and that ‘knowledge failure’ creates ‘life threatening problems’ for ‘them’ and ‘their loved ones’ whom do know either because most ‘do not know how to effectively deal with each type of disaster’ since such are rarely experienced.

There are some basic ‘emergency common sense lessons’ easily learned that quickly become second-nature if ‘at least taught’ using a ‘proper presentation medium’ to reach people’s understandings so they ‘can know precisely what to do’ because disasters are ‘type dependent’ where ‘no disaster preparedness is the same’ but varies according to type.

Fatal Mistakes During Disasters

Citizen’s ‘disaster emergency preparedness’ seriously saves lives but because of a ‘lack of understanding’ there continues to be a significant number of ‘serious mistakes made by ‘many believing they are exercising logical steps at-first to save their life’ – until they die from having made that mistake – because they have ‘not been taught certain ramifications of type-dependent disasters’.

For serious space weather, a prime example of this is a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) occurring during a Winter cold weather where electricity becomes completely shut-off and people bring their ‘barbeque pits indoors’ where they can ‘create wood fires’. The end result is, ‘all occupants of the dwelling die overnight’ because ‘constant wood-fire burning depletes oxygen levels that become overpowered with carbon monoxide levels’.

Somewhat similar are those who retreat to their vehicle – inside a closed garage – where the engine is started to run the heater to stay warm, but a steady stream of ‘vehicle exhaust fumes slowly enter the interior of the car’ – unnoticeably to vehicle occupants who get put to sleep and their death from being slowly asphyxiated.

The U.S. government, for years, has been providing a very expensive ( to taxpayers ) NASA television channel broadcast ( 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, year round ) that continues ‘interrupted’ – whether there is a NASA spacecraft in space or not ( sometimes with a ‘blackened screen only filled with trajectory lines for hours on-end’ ), which ‘does absolutely nothing for the preservation of human life of any taxpaying American citizen’; yet American taxpayers continue paying for this ‘government wasteful spending’ nonsense.

Why No Government Lessons Teach The Public Anything

Global panic, is the only reason ‘why’ most were ‘not warned in-advance’, and as the following ( below ) points-out, there is ‘absolutely no time left for people to wait for their government warning’ because ‘no warning will ever be issued’ – people are going to just live-out their lives until the end comes soon.

No longer a ‘doomsday prediction’, because the following information ( below ) is based on ‘official information compiled’ clearly demonstrating ‘why’ it has now become logical for everyone to ‘self-mandate learning how to self-prepare’ for a ‘serious space weather disaster’ that will soon affect the very ground stood upon today that was ‘secretly predicted for key citizens’ as far back as at least 2004.

The Government Is Always Correct, Right? Wrong!

Had anyone from the public been tasked to closely monitor not only mainstream news media broadcasts as to certain events, but also obtained background studies from ‘official U.S. government data’ supplied by both NASA and NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center providing data from several spacecraft, had college studies in ‘plate tectonics’, plus performed significant comparative analysis with ‘ultra-deep sea arc volcanic explosive phreatic magmatic activity’ the ‘government secret would have been revealed a lot sooner – after ‘ascertaining it all in a final understanding’.

What began on February 8, 2011 with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security elevating its Threat Level to “YELLOW” for a “Significant National Weather Alert” issued by the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA ) based on NASA and NOAA information left only a few to wonder ‘why’ many U.S. government agencies are all climbing into the same information bed at one time. Why are they all so nervous? Might they have somehow forgotten to tell the ‘little people’ ( public ) some ‘new information’ that is now ‘old news’ to only but a few in government?

Recent facts about Earth ‘true north’ has ‘quickly shifted’ dramatically in the ‘opposite direction’ of what ‘government reported as its “earlier prediction” that was recently ‘officially admitted’ as having ‘earlier been incorrect’.

Why has such information been recently released by mainstream news broadcast reports?

Airline pilots noticed their aircraft navigation compass headings required changes to navigate according to airport runway heading indicator signs and neither agree.

The anomaly instantly saw airline pilots and navigators talking amongst themselves worldwide about their ‘compass headings no longer point “True North,” now requiring navigation corrections on aircraft onboard computers and even airport runways as recently reported in February 2011.

Many do not realize that if an airplane or ship ‘navigation is incorrect by only a few degrees’ that entire land masses will be missed and fuel will run-out leaving passengers either stranded or dead from airlines running out-of fuel in mid-air.

Recently, it was discovered that the entire Earth axis has ‘definitely shifted’ and ‘much quicker’ than expected.

What was ‘unexpected’ was, this Earth axis shift was ‘totally in the opposite direction’ of what ‘government standards of measurement’ provided for ‘scientific data accuracy outcomes’.

That was only a few ‘small parts’ of what has gone seriously wrong about a ‘much greater secret’ never leaked to the press.

What recently came next, in February 2011, was yet another secret leaked just last week: The Earth axis not only shifted a total of 4-degrees, but it did-so due ‘East’ but not ‘West’ as the government again predicted.

Unless government ‘did not make any mistakes for what it predicted earlier to the public’ could it have secretly wanted to see people worldwide taken by surprise? If not, then ‘how could the government make so many serious scientific mistakes’?

Pole Shift Reported By Mainstream News Broadcasts

In February 2011, when ‘airports began changing runway compass number headings’ displayed on ‘extremely large portrait-size shaped signs’ standing upright at the end of runways, news of such was leaked to the mainstream press outlets that saw broadcast television news reports announcing a “sudden pole shift” in the Earth.

Science Fiction “Deep Space 9″ Strange ISS Payloads & Movements

Since at least 2004, government secrets surrounding ‘space weather’ ( extremely serious solar flare activity ) is very capable of ‘triggering magnetic mechanisms’ deep within the magnetic core of the Earth – the effects of which extend upward to the surface in something most are unaware of called ‘ultra-deep sea volcanoes that erupt so incredibly explosive ( volcanic explosive phreatic magamatics or phreatomagmatic eruptions ) causing Earth’s crust plate tectonics to begin moving as a result of ‘ultra-deep magmatic and magnetic force increases from increased high-energy particles received and stored in Earth’s core’ – something that ‘geoscientific astrophysicists’ know plenty about.

This is believed the ‘secret reason’ behind ‘why’, since 2004, the following ( below ) has been conducted, and precisely ‘why’ the United States of America ( USA ), Russia ( CIS ), Japan and French government timelines have been ‘secretly speeding’ “unmanned space freighters” ( see NASA news below ) with ‘continual non-stop secret payload amounts’ from Earth up into the International Space Station ( ISS ) that is experiencing ‘significant increases in its fuel payloads’ NASA says is “designed to boost the International Space Station ( ISS ) further into orbit” should it become necessary for the ISS to be moved further away from the Earth.

Questions have recently begun to surface, which see ‘no answers being provided to the public by any government agency service’:

- “Why is the International Space Station ( ISS ) being considered ‘moved further away from Earth’?”

- “Could there be a government secret that brought about a plan to send the International Space Station ( ISS ) ‘farther away from Earth into space’ so the NASA “Robonaut 2” ( also known as ) “R2” ‘may eventually be the only thing performing any physical work aboard’, but that may only be to ‘maintain an earlier recorded Earth event’ that to-date has not yet occurred?”

- “Is the ISS secretly expected to ‘hitch a galactic ride’ due to a ‘gravity well’ created by another interstellar body ( asteroid, comet, planet, or dwarf star ) entering our Solar System planetary plane soon?”

- “Is the ISS being ‘secretly missioned to record data of a cataclysmic Earth Extinction Level Event ( ELE ) so, in the future ‘other space goers will know that we once existed and had progressed as far as we did in technology and outer space use? If so, does a ‘limited few on Earth’ – knowing this – believe such ‘interstellar historical information’ may be valued by others coming upon it later? If so, then what is about to happen on Earth that people are not being told?”

Geoscience and astrophysics data facts, once researched and extrapolated for comparative analysis, points directly to an Earth Extinction Level Event ( ELE ) coming soon, and taking all that data and coupling it with known facts that ‘certain superpower governments’ and building deep underground military-protected bases

Not Science Fiction But Geoscience Astrophysics Reality

Before February 16, 2011 an ‘earlier secret payload’ of ‘extreme long-range optical sensors and data recorders’ was delivered to the International Space Station ( ISS ) to ‘record from space only’ an ‘extremely powerful global seismic shock’ ( earthquake ) that ‘Earth seismic detectors will be unable to fully and accurately record’ overall Earth plate tectonic movement the likes which has never been recorded during the history of man.

On February 17, 2011 the aforementioned monitoring equipment consisting of optical imaging long-range sensing detectors and data recording equipment rendered the International Space Station ( ISS ) a Space-based Planet Monitoring System ( PMS ) focusing on Earth ground events coming, was finally completed by two ( 2 ) Russia cosmonauts positioning the space-based external sensors ( SES ) outside the International Space Station ( ISS ) to record a major Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) impact triggering affects in yet other Earth mechanisms beginning, with:

Earth axis ‘pole shift’ as ‘high-energy particles invisibly penetrate the magnetic core of the Earth’, much of which danger ‘primarily enters en-masse through planet Earth’s ‘now open’ Magnetosphere no longer protecting the entire circumference of the Earth due to a hole in it, followed by explosive volcanic phreatomagmatic eruptions forcing great tectonic movement with resultant ‘major earthquakes’, ‘thermal lightning storms’, and great waterway upheavals of lakes, major rivers and oceanic tsunamis; and event that – for the surface of the Earth – will likely result in what is known as an Extinction Level Event ( ELE ).

Known well in-advance, by only a few, a greater growing number of what are called ‘conspiracy nuts’ and ‘doomsday prophets’ have been surmising for decades that ‘some unknown but catastrophic event or chain of events is going to occur on Earth’.

Now, recent information – contained in this report – could explain the primary reason behind why so many government protected ‘ultra-deep underground facilities’ are being ‘stockpiled with only the purest of natural agricultural produce seeds’ ( recently obtained from a few Native American Indian tribes ), and why ‘ultra-deep subterranean bases have alternative suboceanic tunnel system entry and exit access points as well’.

Deep underground ( subterranean ) ‘bases’ have been photographed and even ‘recently videotaped on a high-quality cellphone camera’ used by a ‘truck driver making secret deliveries’ deep down inside one ( 1 ) facility carved into gigantic cavern warehouse size rooms with blast proof doors and extremely huge tunnel access protected by armed government military soldiers. Hence, the nickname “DUMB” ( ” Deep Underground Military Base ” ).

Deep underground ( subterranean ) ‘tunnels’ have also been recently filmed with still-image cameras providing amazingly crystal clear color photographs showing tunnels ‘carved out-of solid rock’ where huge equipment believed propelled by what are known as “Terron Drives” ‘cut-through and liquefy rock cuts simultaneously providing a seamless seal that is totally impenetrable by anything known to man; including multiple back-to-back ‘bunker buster’ directed nuclear bomb strikes.

On February 24, 2011 NASA Discovery space shuttle left Earth with the first ( 1st ), and probably last for a long while, ‘humanoid robot’ nicknamed “Robonaut” ( also known as ) “R-2″ that will be placed under a ‘top secret assignment’ aboard the International Space Station ( ISS ).

It is believed the purpose of the “Robonaut” ‘secret assignment’ will be to ‘eventually takeover ISS space-based data recording’ of ‘multiple Earth events unfolding’ whereupon from ‘extreme solar flare high-energy particle irradiation exposure’ after the Earth “occurrence” thereupon eventually ‘rendering prohibition of human life ever to be stationed aboard the International Space Station ( ISS )’.

The rapid increases in ISS payload, recent types of payloads brought onboard the ISS, and ISS projected movement is ‘absolutely chilling’.

Official documented reports by government coupled with ‘genuine news facts reported’ from mainstream media television broadcasts, leaves information analysis up to be ascertained by the public.

Here are only ‘a very few’ but ‘key critical officially recorded’ recent ‘facts’ – but ‘not all’ from what is additionally contained within the Concept Activity Research Vault database. ( see below )

- -

Source ( secondary ): MSNBC.Com – Space

[ PHOTO ( above ): The European Space Agency ( ESA ) ATV-2 "Johannes Kepler" docks at the International Space Station ( ISS ) on February 24, 2011 after an 8-day flight. ]

Cargo Ship Gets To Space Station Ahead Of Shuttle Discovery

Source ( primary ): Space.Com

Robotic Spacecraft Delivers 7 Tons Of Supplies For Crew by, Tarik Malik [ Space.Com Managing Editor ]

February 24, 2011 18:10:33 Thursday ( Updated: 2 hours 21 minutes ago )

A huge European cargo ship linked up with the International Space Station Thursday, delivering tons of supplies for the outpost’s crew just ‘hours before’ NASA’s planned launch of the shuttle Discovery [ STS-133 ].

The robotic spacecraft ( the ‘size of a double-decker bus’ ) – docked with the space station ( ISS ) [ on February 24, 2011 ] at 10:59 a.m. EST ( 15:59 GMT ) as the two [ 2 ] vehicles [ ATV-2 & ISS ] soared high over the Atlantic Ocean – known as the Automated Transfer Vehicle 2 ( ATV-2 ) – hefty space freighter is packed with 7 tons [ 14,000 pounds ] of supplies for the station’s [ ISS ] 6 person crew.

“Contact confirmed, capture confirmed,” Russia cosmonauts on the station [ ISS ] radioed mission control [ <?> NASA / ESA <?> ] after the successful docking.

The ATV-2, named the ” Johannes Kepler ” [ http://www.space.com/10884-huge-european-spaceship-launches.html ], is the second [ 2nd ] ‘robotic cargo spacecraft’ built by the European Space Agency [ ESA ] to ferry supplies to the International Space Station [ ISS ]. It launched atop a [ France ] Ariane 5 rocket on February 16, 2011 – beating NASA space shuttle [ Discovery STS 133 ].

The cargo ship [ ATV 2 ] hooked-up with the space station [ ISS ] in less than ’6-hours before’ the Discovery [ STS 133 ] space shuttle planned launch [ http://www.space.com/10937-space-shuttle-discovery-final-launch-preview.html ] toward the orbiting laboratory [ ISS ] – clearing the way for the orbiter’s [ Discovery space shuttle ] flight, NASA officials said.

NASA had already fueled Discovery [ space shuttle ] – for a 4:50 p.m. EST ( 21:50 GMT ) launch from the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida – at the time of the docking in space.

The six [ 6 ] astronauts – set to launch on Discovery – were apparently keeping track of the ATV-2 docking even as they geared-up for their own flight [ Discovery ].

“ATV docking complete! ISS just got bigger,” Discovery astronaut Nicole Stott wrote in a Twitter post. “Congrats to ESA and all the station partners around the world!

‘If’ Discovery ‘launches on time’, the shuttle will arrive at the International Space Station [ ISS ] on Saturday [ 26FEB11 ] – and will be the final flight of space shuttle Discovery [ http://www.space.com/10938-space-shuttle-discovery-legacy-numbers.html ] before the orbiter is retired later this year [ 2011 ].

When NASA’s shuttle Discovery docks at the station, spacecraft and robotic arms from all five of the major international space agencies building the $100 billion space station will be at the orbiting laboratory at the same time.

NASA and its Russian Federal Space Agency ( FSA ) partners are discussing the possibility of staging a photo session to capture the space station scene.

That idea, would send station [ ISS ] crew members ‘around the orbiting lab [ ISS external visual inspection photos ]‘ – on a flight in a Russia Soyuz spacecraft, from which they would snap ‘photographs’.

A final decision, on whether to go ahead with the photo opportunity, is expected during Discovery’s mission, NASA officials have said.

Europe’s Space Freighters -

Like their name suggests, Europe’s Automated Transfer Vehicles [ ATV ] [ http://www.space.com/10859-heaviest-atv-orbit.html ] are ‘unmanned spacecraft’ designed to ‘fly themselves to a docking port’ on the aft [ anterior ] end of the space station [ ISS ].

After months parked at the station [ ISS ], they un-dock, and are then ‘intentionally destroyed’ – burned up in Earth’s atmosphere.

ATV spacecraft look like large cylindrical objects – with four [ 4 ] solar arrays – giving them a ‘dragonfly’ like appearance – they are about 35-feet long and 14.7-feet wide.

The first [ 1st ] vehicle of the fleet [ Automated Transfer Vehicles - space freighters ] was the ATV-1 [ known as the ] ” Jules Verne ” – launched to the space station [ ISS ] in March 2008 – concluded its mission in September of that year [ 2008 ].

ESA [ European Space Agency ] officials have said each ATV [ Automated Transfer Vehicle - space freighter ] mission costs about $600,000,000 million, and the ‘entire fleet’ cost about $2,000,000,000 billion just to develop, according to Spaceflight Now.

The cargo, packed inside the ATV-2 Johannes Kepler, includes:

- 3,527 pounds of ‘equipment’ and ‘other dry supplies’; – 2,200 pounds of ‘rocket propellant’ ( for the station [ ISS ] thrusters ); – 220 pounds of ‘oxygen’ ( for the station [ ISS ] crew ); and, – 10,700 pounds of propellant stored aboard the ATV-2 craft itself ( to ‘help the space station [ ISS ] boost orbit’ – from time-to-time ), NASA officials said today 24FEB11.

January 2011 Other Deliveries To ISS -

The ATV-2 Johannes Kepler is expected to spend about 4-months docked at the International Space Station.

The ATV-2, followed the earlier arrival of ‘two’ [ 2 ] ‘other unmanned cargo ships’ [ space freighters ] – sent to the space station [ ISS ] last month [ January 2011 ]:

- H-2 Transfer Vehicle ( Japan ); and,

- Progress 41 ( Russia ).

After the NASA space shuttle fleet retires, this year [ 2011 ], the United States plans to rely, on spacecraft, from:

Russia; Europe; and, Japan.

As the U.S. only means to ‘ferry crews and cargo’ to the International Space Station [ ISS ] – until American built commercial [ private-sector ] space vehicles become available.

After Discovery [ space shuttle ] launches today [ 24FEB11 ], NASA plans to fly two [ 2 ] more shuttle missions [ Endeavor STS-134 ( 14APR11 ) & Atlantis STS-135 ( 28JUN11 ); the latter returning a 'failed ammonia pump module' ] – and ‘then retire the fleet’ [ space shuttles ] for good after [ their ] 30-years of service.

-

SPACE.com Managing Editor, Tariq Malik, on: Twitter@tariqjmalik

Staff writer Denise Chow@denisechow ) is providing mission coverage of Discovery’s final space voyage from Cape Canaveral, Fla.

- Gallery – Building the International Space Station [ http://www.space.com/50-building-international-space-station.html ]; and,

- Video – Europe’s Heaviest Spaceship: ATV Johannes Kepler [ http://www.space.com/10859-heaviest-atv-orbit.html ];

Reference

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41761320/ns/technology_and_science-space/?GT1=43001

- -

Source: MSNBC.Com

TV Video Clip

Cosmonauts Install Earthquake Predictor On ISS by, Al Stirrett ( NBC News reporter )

February 24, 2011

On February 16, 2011 two ( 2 ) Russia cosmonauts – aboard the International Space Station ( ISS ) – ‘began installing outside the ISS’, the following:

- ‘Earthquake prediction and seismic forecast’ monitoring via ‘experimental optic video camera sensor’ ( the MSNBC.Com TV broadcast pronounced the monitoring program in ‘Russia language phonetics’ as “Radio Metria,” which in English translates to “radiometry” ); and;

- ‘Terrestrial lightning storms’ monitoring via ‘experimental optical radiation sensors’ ( multiple ).

On February 23, 2011 both installations were completed ‘outside the ISS’, which began providing both ‘long-range optical image data streams’ and ‘long-range scientific sensing measurements.

These data monitorization feeds are being received ‘in’ Moscow, Russia – according to the MSNBC.Com TV video report ( 24FEB11 ).

Reference

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/41626743#41626743

Image: http://msnbcmedia1.msn.com/j/MSNBC/Components/Video/110216/a_ast_space_110216.thumb-m.jpg

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41761320/ns/technology_and_science-space/?GT1=43001

- -

Source: MSNBC.COM & Associated Press ( AP )

Space

February 24, 2011 13:58 PM ( PST ) – Updated 42-minutes ago

Space Shuttle Discovery Blasts Off On Its Final Flight by, MSNBC.Com Staff and Associated Press news service reports

Problem with ‘range safety’ [ Discovery space shuttle ] adds ‘last minute drama’ to space station mission

CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida — After a last-minute glitch, the space shuttle Discovery lifted off Thursday on its final voyage, heading for the International Space Station with 6 astronauts and 1 humanoid robot.

The countdown proceeded smoothly, until there were just minutes left before liftoff.

Range safety officers reported that their ‘command system display was not working’, which could have forced a halt to the count.

“Calm down,” shuttle launch director Mike Leinbach told his colleagues.

He asked for some extra time to get the problem fixed — and received the go-ahead.

The countdown had to be held at T-minus-5 minutes, but the range safety system was fixed with just seconds left to make Thursday’s launch window.

It was an extra bit of drama for a mission that was initially scheduled for launch last November [ 2010 ]. At that time, ‘fueling problems’ held up the launch, forcing months of repairs.

No such problems arose this time.

“Enjoy the ride,” mission control told Discovery commander Steven Lindsey as the clock wound down toward zero. “For those watching, get ready to witness the majesty and power of Discovery as she lifts off one last time,” Lindsey replied.

Launch came at 4:53 p.m. ET, 3-minutes later than scheduled.

“The final liftoff of Discovery,” launch commentator Mike Curie said, “a tribute to the dedication, hard work and pride of America’s space shuttle team.”

The shuttle is heading to the International Space Station [ ISS ] with a load of supplies, a new orbital closet, and a humanoid robot.

Docking is set for Saturday [ 26FEB11 ].

World’s Most Traveled Spaceship

Discovery is NASA’s most traveled space shuttle, putting in nearly three decades [ 30-years ] of service.

Now it’s slated to become the first [ 1st ] of NASA’s three [ 3 ] remaining  shuttles to retire.

This is the 39th flight for Discovery, which has logged 143,000,000 million miles ( 230,000,000 million kilometers ) since its first [ 1st ] mission in 1984.

After retirement, the orbiter is expected to go on display at the Smithsonian Institution Udvar-Hazy Center, an annex of the National Air and Space Museum.

NASA estimated that 40,000 guests were on hand for Discovery’s farewell launch, including a small contingent from Congress and Florida’s new governor, Rick Scott.

Watching with special interest, from Mission Control in Houston, was astronaut Timothy Kopra, who was supposed to be the flight’s lead spacewalker. He was hurt in a bicycle crash last month and was replaced by Stephen Bowen, who will become the first [ 1st ] astronaut to fly ‘back-to-back shuttle missions’.

In addition to Lindsey and Bowen, Discovery’s crew includes pilot Eric Boe, spacewalker Benjamin Alvin Drew Jr. and mission specialists Michael Barratt and Nicole Stott. All 6 astronauts are veterans.

Stott and Barratt served long-term stints on the space station in 2009.

Onlookers Flock To Watch Launch

Roads leading to the launch site were jammed with cars parked two and three deep; recreational vehicles snagged prime viewing spots along the Banana River well before dawn. Businesses and governments joined in, their signs offering words of encouragement. “The heavens await Discovery,” a Cocoa Beach church proclaimed. Groceries stocked up on extra red, white and blue cakes with shuttle pictures. Stores ran out of camera batteries.

The launch team also got into the act. A competition was held to craft the departing salutation from Launch Control; Kennedy Space Center’s public affairs office normally comes up with the parting line. Souvenir photos of Discovery were set aside for controllers in the firing room. Many posed for group shots.

Leinbach noted that it would be “tough” to see Discovery soar one last time. “What will be most difficult will be on landing day when we know that that’s the end of her mission completely,” he said.

Discovery will spend 11-days in orbit — on top of the 352-days it’s already spent circling the planet — and will rack up another 4,500,000 million miles ( 7,200,000 million kilometers ).

Its achievements include delivering the Hubble Space Telescope to orbit, carrying the first Russian cosmonaut to launch on a U.S. spaceship, returning Mercury astronaut John Glenn to orbit, and bringing shuttle flights back to life after the Challenger [ space shuttle ] and Columbia [ space shuttle ] accidents.

“She’s been an amazing machine,” Leinbach said Wednesday. “She’s done everything we’ve asked of her.”

Discovery’s crew will deliver and install a closet-like compartment full of space station supplies. The Italy manufactured module was named Leonardo, after the Italian artist / inventor Da Vinci.

Packed inside the compartment is “Robonaut 2″ or R2, set to become the ‘first humanoid robot in space’. The experimental machine — looking human from the waist up — [ < ! > ] ‘will remain boxed until after Discovery departs’[ < ! > ].

Up at the space station [ ISS ], meanwhile, the 6 person crew welcomed a European cargo ship [ yet another "space freighter" ] that was ‘launched last week’ from French Guiana. The robotic [ 'unmanned' ] spaceship [ "space freighter" ] docked successfully, ‘just 6-hours before’ Discovery lift-off, keeping the shuttle countdown on-track.

“Busy day in space,” [ ISS ] station commander Scott Kelly noted in a Twitter tweet.

NASA is under a [ U.S. ] Presidential Directive to retire the shuttle fleet this [ 2011 ] summer, letting private companies [ private sector ] take over trips [ in space ] to orbit, and focus on ‘getting astronauts to asteroids and Mars’.

There has been ‘considerable disagreement, among lawmakers and the space community’, on ‘how best to accomplish this’.

“Godspeed Discovery,” retired space shuttle program manager Wayne Hale said in a Twitter update Thursday. “Prayers for a safe flight and wisdom for decision makers.”

Reference

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41757735/ns/technology_and_science-space/

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The U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) provides a relatively recent ( 2004 ) report indicating “strong solar storm activity” ( also known as ) Coronal Mass Ejection Flares ( also known as ) “Solar Wind” from the Sun that brings Geomagnetic Storms to Earth experiences magnetosphere ( ionosphere ) interaction resonance cavity field fluctuations [ Berdichevsky and Dmitriev ( 2002 ) ] of apparent magnetic resistivity has had little ‘long term monitoring’, which was only done ‘passively in the past’ by [ Eisel and Egbert ( 2002 ) ] and [ Zhao and Qian ( 1992 ) ]. This report studies strong geomagnetic storms bringing “strong solar particle radiation” and – with it – strong “magnetic effects” on Earth tectonic plate movement ( earthquake ) reactions.

In this USGS relatively recent report, the only variations anywhere near as large as those reported in the paper of Fraser-Smith et al. ( 1990 ), ‘occurred during times of enhanced solar activity’. It is important to note this because of the fact that now there exists a ‘huge hole’ in the center of Earth’s magnetosphere ( ionosphere ) where there will be ‘absolutely no protection against other consequential reactions’ when Earth is hit by ‘significant solar flare amounts of high-energy ( energetic ) ‘electron’ particles that will enter through it, eventually be absorbed into Earth’s ‘liquid molten magnetic core magma flowing upward into volcanoes’ that erupt explosively outward pushing Earth crust plates up and on-top-of one another.

If a significant solar flare, like the one recently predicted by NASA indicating it is already something “we all need to be concerned about,” strikes Earth in its ‘most vulnerable spot’ ( magnetosphere / ionosphere ), weights of Earth’s crust plates moving up, over and on-top-of other plates will ‘weigh Earth down in highly concentrated new locations’ triggering an Earth “wobble” on its axis that may also see Earth’s magnetic Polar region shift a significant number of degrees even further than it recently has where Earth may then remain for many-many years to come, and ‘this’ could very well result in the aforementioned serious events occurring sooner here on Earth.

Geoscientists and astrophysicists whom have studied events for many years know Earth’s ‘geomagnetic activity’ is ‘typically stable’, however recent studies at astrophysics observatories have been analyzing ‘significant record periods of Earth seismic instability’ during which ’serious solar flare storms’ have been hitting Earth.

Is this what ‘a few governments are secretly preparing for’, the ‘possibility occurring soon’ triggering more events on Earth than just a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE )?

Unfortunately, recent research and analysis indicates, “yes.”

 

Submitted for review and open public commentary by,

 

Kentron Intellect Research Vault ( KIRV )
E-MAIL: KentronIntellectResearchVault@gmail.com
WWW: http://KentronIntellectResearchVault.WordPress.Com

References

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/external/reports/05HQGR0077.pdf
http://www.jstor.org/pss/74163
http://lasp.colorado.edu/education/journalists/solar_dynamics_ws/papers/lowres%20Severe%20Space%20Weather%20FINAL.pdf
http://conceptactivityresearchvault.wordpress.com/2011/01/02/solar-energetic-particle-event-effects
http://upintelligence.wordpress.com/2010/12/09/secret-hfse-properties-part-1
http://upintelligence.wordpress.com/2010/12/26/secret-hfse-properties-part-3
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_volcanic_eruptions

 

MSN Warns Disasters

MSN Warns Disasters

 

MSN Warns Disasters by, Concept Activity Research Vault

March 7, 2012 18:22:42 ( PST ) Updated ( Originally Published: May 16, 2011 )

Los Angeles – May 16, 2011 – MSN Slate News reported ( read article below ) that a host of disasters are coming, which ‘the public should not become overly worried about’, but suggests throwing a celebration-like “18th Century Weekend” in-advance so ‘people can experience what a solar flare disaster might be like to live through’.

While the suggested Medieval celebratory affair ‘concept’ is ‘unique’, MSN suggesting the public ‘stock up on batteries’ was a bit off because apparently the journalist did not realize ‘batteries become drained’ subsequent to an environmental anomaly ‘overcharging’ from an ambient auroral current attributable to what occurs during a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE );  ‘candles’ or ‘lumeniscent gel sticks’ ( shake lights ) would work amidst such, however mainstream news media broadcasts and print media, without thoroughly researching facts first, have a habit of passing inaccurate information on to the general public, and at the same time, doing it mostly in a whimsical fashion so it can be easily swallowed by the public. That type of reporting does ‘not’ help the public, but only serves to provide the illusion that what is being reported about will probably never happen. Big mistake!

News reporting, as a public service, should take far more care when reporting about emergency disaster preparedness on ‘what to do’ and just ‘how to prepare’; especially when it comes to mentioning a ‘significant’ solar flare ( also known as ) a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ) that could quickly and very seriously disable the national electricity infrastructure without warning.

To let CARV readers review how MSN Slate News recently put it to the general public, we cordially invite ‘you’ ( our readers ) to review the MSN Slate News report ( below ) so, you can be the judge on whom to rely on for delivering your emergency disaster preparedness information from.

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Source: MSN Slate News

Meltdowns. Floods. Tornadoes. Oil spills. Grid crashes. Why more and more things seem to be going wrong, and what we can do about it.

The Century of Disasters by, Joel Achenbach

May 13, 2011 5:56 PM ( EST )

This will be the century of disasters.

In the same way that the 20th century was the century of world wars, genocide, and grinding ideological conflict, the 21st century will be the century of natural disasters and technological crises and unholy combinations of the two.

It will be the century when the things we count on to go right will – for whatever reason – go wrong.

Late last month ( April 2011 ), as the Mississippi River rose in what is destined to be the worst flood in decades, residents of Alabama and other states rummaged through the debris of a historic tornado outbreak.

Physicists at a meeting in Anaheim, California had a discussion about the dangers posed by the Sun.

Solar flares, scientists believe, are a disaster waiting to happen. Thus one of the sessions at the American Physical Society annual meeting was devoted to discussing the hazard of electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) caused by solar flares – or terrorist attacks. Such pulses ( EMP ) could fry transformers and knock out the electrical grid over much of the nation. Last year the Oak Ridge National Laboratory released a study saying the damage might take years to fix and cost trillions of dollars.

But maybe even that is not the disaster people should be worrying about.

Maybe they should worry instead about the “ARkStorm.” That’s the name the U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS ) Multihazards Demonstration Project ( MDP ) gave to a hypothetical storm that would essentially turn much of the California Central Valley into a bathtub. It has happened before, in 1861 – 1862, when it rained for 45-days continously. USGS explains, “The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming a series of “Atmospheric Rivers” ( AR ) that approach the ferocity of hurricanes and then slam into the United States West Coast over several weeks.” The result, the USGS determined, could be a flood that would cost $725,000,000 billion in direct property losses and economic impact.

While pondering this, don’t forget the Cascadia subduction zone, the plate boundary off the coast of the Pacific Northwest, that could generate a tsunami much like the one that devastated Japan in March 2011. The Cascadia subduction zone, runs from Vancouver Island to northern California, last rupturing in a major tsunami spawning earthquake on January 26, 1700. It could break at any moment, with catastrophic consequences.

All of these things have the common feature of low probability and high consequence.

They are known as “black swan” events.

They are unpredictable in any practical sense.

There are also things ordinary people probably should not worry about on a daily basis.

You can’t fear the Sun.

You cannot worry a rock will fall out of the sky and smash the Earth, or that the ground will open up and swallow you like a vitamin.

A key element of maintaining one’s sanity is ‘knowing how to ignore risks’ that are highly improbable at any given point in time.

And yet in the coming century, these or other ‘black swan events’ will seem to occur with surprising frequency.

There are several reasons for this.

We have chosen to engineer the planet.

We have built vast networks of technology.

We have created systems that, in general, work very well, but are still vulnerable to catastrophic failures.

It is harder and harder for any one person, institution, or agency to perceive all the interconnected elements of the technological society.

Failures can cascade.

There are unseen weak points in the network.

Small failures can have broad consequences.

Most importantly, we have more people and more stuff standing in the way of calamity.

We are not suddenly having more earthquakes, but there are now 7,000,000,000 billion of us, a majority living in cities.

In 1800, only Beijing, China could count 1,000,000 inhabitants, but at last count there were 381 cities with at least 1,000,000 people.

Many are MegaCities in seismically hazardous places like Mexico City, Caracas, Venezuela; Tehran, Iran and Kathmandu amongst those with a lethal combination of weak infrastructure ( unreinforced masonry buildings ) and shaky foundations.

Natural disasters will increasingly be accompanied by technological crises, and the other way around.

In March 2011, the Japan earthquake triggered the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant meltdown.

Last year ( 2010 ), a technological failure on the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig – in the Gulf of Mexico – led to the environmental crisis of the oil spill. ( I chronicle the Deepwater Horizon blowout and the ensuing crisis management in a new book: A Hole at the Bottom of the Sea: The Race to Kill the BP Oil Gusher. )

In both the Deepwater Horizon and Fukushima disasters, the safety systems were not nearly as robust as the industries believed.

In these technological accidents, there are hidden pathways for the gremlins to infiltrate the operation.

In the case of Deepwater Horizon, a series of decisions by BP ( oil company ) and its contractors led to a loss of well control — the initial blowout. The massive blowout preventer on the sea floor was equipped with a pair of pinchers known as ‘blind shear rams’. They were supposed to cut the drillpipe and shear the well. The forensic investigation indicated the initial eruption of gas buckled the pipe and prevented the blind shear rams from getting a clean bite on it so, the “backup” plan — of cutting the pipe — was effectively eliminated in the initial event; the loss of well control.

Fukushima also had a backup plan that was not far enough back. The nuclear power plant had backup generators – in case the grid went down – but the generators were on ‘low’ ground and were blasted by the tsunami.

Without electricity the power company had no way to cool the nuclear fuel rods.

In a sense, it was a very simple problem: a power outage.

Some modern reactors coming online have passive cooling systems for backups that rely on gravity and evaporation to circulate the cooling water.

Charles Perrow, author of Normal Accidents, told me that computer infrastructure is a disaster in the making.

“Watch out for failures in cloud computing,” he said by e-mail, “They will have consequences for medical monitoring systems and much else.”

Technology also mitigates disasters, of course.

Pandemics remain a threat, but modern medicine can help us stay a step ahead of evolving microbes.

Satellites and computer models helped meteorologists anticipate the deadly storms of April 27, 2011 and warn people to find cover in advance of the twisters.

Better building codes save lives in earthquakes. Chile, which has strict building codes, was hit with a powerful earthquake last year ( 2010 ) but suffered only a fraction of the fatalities and damage that impoverished Haiti endured just weeks earlier.

The current ( 2011 ) Mississippi flood is an example of technology at work for better and for worse.

As I write, the Army Corps of Engineers are poised to open the Morganza spillway and flood much of the Atchafalaya basin. That’s not a “disaster” but a solution of sorts, since the alternative is the flooding of cities downstream and possible levee failure. Of course, the levees might still fail. We’ll see. But this is how the system is ‘supposed’ to work.

On the other hand, the broader drainage system of the Mississippi River watershed is set up in a way that it makes floods more likely. Corn fields, for example in parts of the upper Midwest, have been “tiled” with pipes that carry excess rainwater rapidly to the rip-rap ( small stone ladden ) streams and onward down to rivers lined with levees. We gave up natural drainage decades ago.

The Mississippi is like a catheter, at this point. Had nature remained in charge, the river would have mitigated much of its downstream flooding by spreading into natural floodplains further up river ( and the main channel would have long ago switched to the Atchafalaya river basin — see John McPhee “The Control of Nature” — and New Orleans would no longer be a riverfront city).

One wild card for how disastrous this century will become is climate change.

There’s been a robust debate on the blogs about whether the recent weather events ( tornadoes and floods ) can be attributed to climate change.

It is a briar patch of an issue and I’ll exercise my right to skip past it for the most part.

But I think it’s clear that climate change will exacerbate natural disasters in general in coming years, and introduce a new element of risk and uncertainty into a future in which we have plenty of risks and uncertainties already. This, we don’t need.

And by the way, any discussion of “geoengineering” as a solution to climate change needs to be examined with the understanding that engineering systems can and will fail.

You don’t want to bet, the future of the planet, on an elaborate technological fix in which everything has to work perfectly. If failure is not an option, maybe you ‘should not’ try-it to begin-with.

So if we cannot engineer our-way out-of our ‘engineered disasters’, and if ‘natural disasters’ are going to keep pummeling us – as they have since the dawn of time — what is our strategy? Other than, you-know, despair? Well, that has always worked for me, but here are a few more practical thoughts to throw in the mix:

First [ 1st ], we might want to try some regulation by people with no skin in the game. That might mean, for example, government regulators who make as much money as the people they’re regulating. Or it could even mean a ‘private-sector regulatory apparatus policing the industry’, cracking down on rogue operators. The point is, we don’t want every risky decision made by people with pecuniary interests.

Second [ 2nd ], we need to keep things in perspective. The apparent onslaught of disasters does not portend the end of the world. Beware of ‘disaster hysteria in the news media’. The serial disasters of the 21st century will be – to some extent – a matter of perception. It will feel like we are bouncing from disaster-to-disaster in-part because of the shrinking of the world and the ubiquity of communications technology. Anderson Cooper and Sanjay Gupta are always in a disaster zone somewhere – demanding to know why the cavalry [ emergency first responders ] has not showed up.

Third [ 3rd ], we should think in terms of ‘how we can boost’ our “societal resilience;” the buzz-word in the ‘disaster preparedness industry’.

Think of what you would do, and what your community would do, after a disaster.

You cannot always dodge the disaster, but perhaps you can still figure-out how to recover quickly.

How would we ‘communicate’ if we got [ solar ] flared by the Sun and the [ electricity ] grid went down over 2/3rds of the country?

How would we even know what was going on?

Maybe we need to have the occasional “18th Century weekend” – to see how people might get through a couple of days without the [ electricity ] grid, cell [ telephone ] towers, cable TV [ television ], iTunes downloads – the full Hobbesian nightmare. And make an emergency plan: Buy some ‘batteries’ [ < ? > NOTE: solar flare effects, during a Solar Energetic Particle Event ( SEPE ), renders 'all batteries dead'. ] and jugs of water – just for starters.

Figure-out how things around you work.

Learn about your community infrastructure.

Read about science, technology, engineering and ‘do not worry if you do not understand all the jargon’.

And then – having done that – go on about your lives, pursuing happiness on a planet that, though sometimes dangerous, is by-far the best one we’ve got.

Reference

http://www.slate.com/id/2294013/pagenum/all/#p2

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Hopefully, people will take an opportunity to read the CARV report on Solar Energetic Particle Event Effects so they can ‘really know what to prepare for soon’,  ’before celebrating’ an “18th Century weekend” affair – complete with “batteries” – as suggested by the MSN Slate News article ( above ).

Although the aforementioned Slate News article indicates, “Solar flares, scientists believe, are a disaster waiting to happen. Thus one of the sessions at the American Physical Society annual meeting was devoted to discussing the hazard of electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) caused by solar flares – or terrorist attacks. Such pulses ( EMP ) could fry transformers and knock out the electrical grid over much of the nation. Last year the Oak Ridge National Laboratory released a study saying the damage might take years to fix and cost trillions of dollars. But maybe even that is not the disaster people should be worrying about,” – we actually ‘may’ have ‘something “people should be worrying about,” as MSNBC puts it, or “concerned about,” according to NASA, in-lieu of the following MSNBC Space.Com report ( below ):

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Source: MSNBC.COM

 

Huge Solar Flare’s Magnetic Storm May Disrupt Satellites, Power Grids

 

March 7, 2012 13:19 p.m. Eastern Standard Time ( EST )

 

A massive solar flare that erupted from the Sun late Tuesday ( March 6, 2012 ) is unleashing one of the most powerful solar storms in more than 5-years, ‘a solar tempest that may potentially interfere with satellites in orbit and power grids when it reaches Earth’.

 

“Space weather has gotten very interesting over the last 24 hours,” Joseph Kunches, a space weather scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ), told reporters today ( March 7, 2012 ). “This was quite the Super Tuesday — you bet.”

 

Several NASA spacecraft caught videos of the solar flare as it hurled a wave of solar plasma and charged particles, called a Coronal mass Ejection ( CME ), into space. The CME is not expected to hit Earth directly, but the cloud of charged particles could deliver a glancing blow to the planet.

 

Early predictions estimate that the Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) will reach Earth tomorrow ( March 8, 2012 ) at 07:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time ( EST ), with the ‘effects likely lasting for 24-hours and possibly lingering into Friday ( March 9, 2012 )’, Kunches said.

 

The solar eruptions occurred late Tuesday night ( March 6, 2012 ) when the sun let loose two ( 2 ) huge X-Class solar flares that ‘ranked among the strongest type’ of sun storms. The biggest of those 2 flares registered as an X Class Category 5.4 solar flare geomagnetic storm on the space weather scale, making it ‘the strongest sun eruption so far this year’.

 

Typically, Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) contain 10,000,000,000 billion tons of solar plasma and material, and the CME triggered by last night’s ( March 6, 2012 ) X-Class Category 5.4 solar flare is ‘the one’ that could disrupt satellite operations, Kunches said.

 

“When the shock arrives, the expectation is for heightened geomagnetic storm activity and the potential for heightened solar radiation,” Kunches said.

 

This heightened geomagnetic activity and increase in solar radiation could impact satellites in space and ‘power grids on the ground’.

 

Some high-precision GPS ( Global Positioning Satellite ) users could also be affected, he said.

 

“There is the potential for ‘induced currents in power grids’,” Kunches said. “‘Power grid operators have all been alerted’. It could start to ’cause some unwanted induced currents’.”

 

Airplanes that fly over the polar caps could also experience communications issues during this time, and some commercial airliners have already taken precautionary actions, Kunches said.

 

Powerful solar storms can also be hazardous to astronauts in space, and NOAA is working close with NASA’s Johnson Space Center to determine if the six ( 6 ) spacecraft residents of the International Space Station ( ISS ) need to take shelter in more protected areas of the orbiting laboratory, he added.

 

The flurry of recent space weather events could also supercharge aurora displays ( also known as the Northern Lights and Southern Lights ) for sky-watchers at high latitudes.

 

“Auroras are probably the treat that we get when the sun erupts,” Kunches said.

 

Over the next couple days, Kunches estimates that brightened auroras could potentially be seen as far south as the southern Great Lakes region, provided the skies are clear.

 

Yesterday’s ( March 6, 2012 ) solar flares erupted from the giant active sunspot AR1429, which spewed an earlier X Class Category 1.1 solar flare on Sunday ( March 4, 2012 ). The CME from that one ( 1 ) outburst mostly missed Earth, passing Earth by last night ( March 6, 2012 ) at around 11 p.m. EST, according to the Space Weather Prediction Center ( SWPC ), which is jointly managed by NOAA and the National Weather Service ( NWS ).

 

This means that the planet ( Earth ) is ‘already experiencing heightened geomagnetic and radiation effects in-advance’ of the next oncoming ( March 8, 2012 thru March 9, 2012 ) Coronal Mass Ejection ( CME ).

 

“We’ve got ‘a whole series of things going off’, and ‘they take different times to arrive’, so they’re ‘all piling on top of each other’,” Harlan Spence, an astrophysicist at the University of New Hampshire, told SPACE.com. “It ‘complicates the forecasting and predicting’ because ‘there are always inherent uncertainties with any single event’ but now ‘with multiple events piling on top of one another’, that ‘uncertainty grows’.”

 

Scientists are closely monitoring the situation, particularly because ‘the AR1429 sunspot region remains potent’. “We think ‘there will be more coming’,” Kunches said. “The ‘potential for more activity’ still looms.”

 

As the Sun rotates, ‘the AR1429 region is shifting closer to the central meridian of the solar disk where flares and associated Coronal Mass Ejections ( CMEs ) may ‘pack more a punch’ because ‘they are more directly pointed at Earth’.

 

“The Sun is waking up at a time in the month when ‘Earth is coming into harms way’,” Spence said. “Think of these ‘CMEs somewhat like a bullet that is shot from the sun in more or less a straight line’. ‘When the sunspot is right in the middle of the sun’, something ‘launched from there is more or less directed right at Earth’. It’s kind of like how getting sideswiped by a car is different than ‘a head-on collision’. Even still, being ‘sideswiped by a big CME can be quite dramatic’.” Spence estimates that ‘sunspot region AR 1429 will rotate past the central meridian in about 1-week’.

 

The sun’s activity ebbs and flows on an 11-year cycle. The sun is in the midst of Solar Maximum Cycle 24, and activity is expected to ramp up toward the height of the Solar Maximum in 2013.

 

Reference

 

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/46655901/

 

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Do we need “Planetary Protection?” NASA has a specific website, referenced here ( below ) as do others ( below ), including The Guardians of the Millennium.

Submitted for review and commentary by,

Concept Activity Research Vault E-MAIL: ConceptActivityResearchVault@Gmail.Com WWW: http://ConceptActivityResearchVault.WordPress.Com

Reference

http://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/about/ [ Planetary Protection ) http://www.lpi.usra.edu/captem/ [ CAPTEM ] http://www.nrl.navy.mil/pao/pressRelease.php?Y=2008&R=39-08r [ U.S. Naval Research Laboratory ] http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/imager.htm [ RHESSI ]